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As a fundamental principle, by granting exclusive rights, copyright provides economic incentives to encourage authors and artists to express their ideas, and in that process, create a new work. As a general rule, when using a protected work, a person needs permission from the copyright holder of such work. However, this article finds that: economic interests provided by copyright are not the primary incentives for authors to create a work; and due to some obstacles, people cannot conform to the copyright rule that permission to use a copyright work is required. These conclusions are supported by an original empirical study on the social norms concerning the practice of online re-creations.
Copyright in the manuscript and published article is held by the author(s). Authors are responsible for obtaining permission from copyright holders for reproducing any third party material in their articles (including illustrations, tables, or figures).