Main Article Content
In 2050, more than 60 percent of the projected increase in urban population is expected to be in Asia while half of that growth will occur in secondary cities. Rapid urbanization and changes of rainfall patterns and intensity pose a high risk of flood, heat waves and drought. City authorities are challenged in delivering efficient infrastructure and services and defining effective and adequate responses to build resilience and mitigate vulnerability. This paper aims to identify and analyse key urban vulnerabilities to climate change impacts in two secondary cities, Khon Kaen and Mukdahan, in the northeast of Thailand. It wants to understand ways of building urban climate resilience cities using shared learning dialogues as major data collection tool and the climate resilience framework as analysis tool. Practices in both cities towards tackling climate risks were found to lack comprehensive and inclusive planning as well as an essential understanding of how unplanned urban growth without a long-term approach that considers climate sensitive land use and urban planning as well as sufficient and adequate water availability – both quantity and quality – currently exacerbates and will influence climate change related impacts in future.
of Investment, Bangkok.
Busapathumrong, P. (2013). Disaster Management: Vulnerability and Resilience in Disaster Recovery in Thailand. Journal of Social Work in Disability and Rehabilitation. 12(1-2), 67-83.
Climate Data (2016). Climate: Mukdahan. Available from: https://en.climate-data. org/location/37435/. [April 5, 2016].
Department of Water Resources (2015). Draft Water Resource Management Act. Available from: https://division.dwr.go.th/waterboard/prb.pdf. [July 30, 2017].
Franzetti, F, Pezzoli, A. and Bagliani, M. (2017). Chapter 9. Rethinking Water Resource Management Under a Climate
Change Perspective: From National to Local Level. The Case of Thailand. In Renewing Local Planning to Face
Climate Change in the Tropics, Green Energy and Technology. Tiepolo, M., Pezzoli, A. and Tarchiani, V., editor. Springer, Turin.
Franzetti, F. (2015): Water Scarcity and Drought Management in Thailand. Stockholm Environment Institute,
Friend, R., Choosuk, C., Hutanuwatr, K., Inmuong, Y., Kittikornkool, J., Lambregts, B., Promphakping, B., Roachanakanan, T., Thiengburanathum, P., Thinphanga, P., and Siriwattanaphaiboon, S. (2016). Urbanizing Thailand. Implications for climate vulnerability assessments. Asian Cities Climate Resilience Working Paper Series 30.2016. Available from: https://pubs.iied.org/pdfs/10770 IIED.pdf. [August 11, 2016].
Friend, R., Thinphanga, P., MacClune, K., Henceroth, J., Tran, P.V.G., and Nghiem, T.P. (2015). Urban transformations and changing patterns of local risk: lessons from the Mekong Region. International Journal of Disaster Resilience in the
Built Environment. 6(1), 30-43.
Friend, R. and MacClune, K. (2013). Regional Integration in the Mekong: Challenges of Urbanization and
Climate Change. ISET-International Discussion Paper, Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International, Boulder.
Friend, R. and MacClune, K. (2012). Climate Resilience Framework. Putting Resilience Into Practice. Institute for
Social and Environmental Transition-International, Colorado.
Friend, R. and Moench, M. (2013). What is the Purpose of Urban Climate Resilience? Implications for Addressing
Poverty and Vulnerability. Urban Climate, 6, 98-113.
Hijioka, Y., Lin, E., Pereira, J.J., Corlett, R.T., Cui, X., Insarov, G.E., Lasco, R.D., Lindgren, E. and Surjan, A. (2014).
Asia. In Climate Change 2014: Impacts, Adaptation, and Vulnerability. Part B: Regional Aspects. Contribution of
Working Group II to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, V.R. Barros, Field, C.B., Dokken, D.J., Mastrandrea, M.D., Mach, K.J., Bilir, T.E., Chatterjee, M., Ebi, K.L., Estrada, Y.O., Genova, R.C., Girma, B., Kissel, E.S., Levy, A.N., MacCracken, S., Mastrandrea, P.R. and White, L.L., editor. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York.
Kelly, M., Yuttaphonphinit, P., Seubsman, S. and Sleigh, A. (2012). Development Policy in Thailand: From-Top-down to
Grass Roots. Asian Social Science. 8.13, 29-39.
Khon Kaen City Development (2016). Available from: https://khonkaenthinktank. com/news_view.php?id=22. [August 25, 2016].
Khon Kaen Provincial Climate Change Master Plan (n.d.).
Lebel, L., Manuta, J.B. and Garden, P. (2011). Institutional Traps and Vulnerability to Changes in Climate and
Flood Regimes in Thailand. Regional Environmental Change. 11(1), 45-58.
Leichenko, R. (2011). Climate change and urban resilience. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability. 3(3), 164-
McDonald, R.I., Green, P., Balk, D., Fekete, B.M., Revenga, C., Todd, M. and Montgomery, M. (2011): Urban Growth, climate change, and freshwater availability. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences. Available from:
https://www.pnas.org/content/108/15/6312.full.pdf. [March 10, 2017].
Moench, M., Tyler, S. and Lage, J. (2011). Catalyzing Urban Climate Resilience. Applying Concepts to Planning Practice
in the ACCCRN Program (2009-2011), editor, Institute for Social and Environmental Transition-International, Colorado.
Mukdahan Department of Public Works and Town Planning (2016). Presentation of the study on Town Plan Kwan Yai
community, Mukdahan, April 4, 2016.
National Economic and Social Development Board (2012). The Eleventh National Economic and Social Development Plan (2012-2016). Office of the Prime Minister, Bangkok.
Northeastern Meteorological Center (n.d.). Available from: https://www.khonkaen. tmd.go.th/home.php. [March 20, 2017].
Office of Natural Resources and Environment Mukdahan (2016). Natural Resources and Environment Administration Plan for 2016 to 2021, Mukdahan.
Pervin, M., Sultana, S., Phirum, A., Camara, I. F., Nzau, V.M., Phonnasane, V., Khounsy, P., Kaur, N. and Anderson, S.
(2013). A framework for mainstreaming climate resilience into development planning, IIED Working Paper, Climate
Change, November 2013.
Promphakping, B., Inmuong, Y., Photaworn, W., Phongsiri, M. and Phatchanay, K. (2015). Climate Change and Urban
Health Vulnerability. Asian Cities Climate Resilience Working Paper Series 31.2016.
Reed, S.O., Friend, R., Toan, V.U., Thinphanga, P., Sutarto, R. and Singh, D. (2013). Shared learning for building
urban climate resilience – experiences from Asian cities. Environment and Urbanization. 25(2), 393-412.
Siam Commercial Bank (2011). Looking beyond Bangkok: the urban consumerism and urbanization in Thailand. Insight
Dec2010-Jan2011, Economic Intelligence Center, Bangkok.
Tingsanchali, T. and Karim, F. (2010). Flood-hazard assessment and risk-based zoning of a tropical flood plain: case
study of the Yom River, Thailand. Hydrological Sciences Journal. 55(2).
Tylor, S. and Moench, M. (2012). A framework for urban climate resilience. Climate and Development. 4(4), 311-
United Nations (2015). World urbanization prospects: The 2014 Revision, Department of Economic and Social Affairs,
Population Division. Available from: https://esa.un.org/unpd/wup/. [March 8, 2017].