The Spiritual Basis of The Struggle for Alternative Societies


  • Chandra Muzaffar International Movement for a Just World


There has never been a situation where humankind as a whole is faced with a multitude of challenges all at the same time in different spheres of life. This is partly because we are all being drawn — whatever our cultures and ideologies — into the same pattern of modernization which is supposed to signify progress.  There are, in fact, two processes at work in this transformation of the entire globe into a certain pattern of existence. At the deeper level, there is a definite notion of the individual, the community, nature, and technology, which is embodied in that worldview associated with development and modernization. A spiritual vision of the human being and humanity is vital for the struggle of the alternatives as a whole. Alternative advocates also believe that it is only in small and medium-sized communities that the human being will be in a position to shape his destiny. This paper discusses the basis of this struggle for alternative societies to save humankind.


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How to Cite

Muzaffar, Chandra. 2021. “The Spiritual Basis of The Struggle for Alternative Societies”. ASIAN REVIEW 34 (2):7-15.



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