The Spiritual Basis of The Struggle for Alternative Societies
There has never been a situation where humankind as a whole is faced with a multitude of challenges all at the same time in different spheres of life. This is partly because we are all being drawn — whatever our cultures and ideologies — into the same pattern of modernization which is supposed to signify progress. There are, in fact, two processes at work in this transformation of the entire globe into a certain pattern of existence. At the deeper level, there is a definite notion of the individual, the community, nature, and technology, which is embodied in that worldview associated with development and modernization. A spiritual vision of the human being and humanity is vital for the struggle of the alternatives as a whole. Alternative advocates also believe that it is only in small and medium-sized communities that the human being will be in a position to shape his destiny. This paper discusses the basis of this struggle for alternative societies to save humankind.
Bettelheim, Bruno.1980. The informed heart: Autonomy in a mass age. Illinois: The Free Press of Glencoe.
Engineer, Asgharali.1984. Islam and its relevance to our age.Bombay: Institute of Islamic Studies.
Gunatilleke, Godfrey.1983. "The Ethics of Order and Change: An Analytical Framework'." Gunatilleke et al.(eds.). Lexington Books.
Gutierrez, Gustavo.1983. We Drink from Our Own Wells.Translated by O. Connell, Matthew J. Quezon City: Claretian Publications.
Kothari, Rajni.1980. Towards A Just World. World Order Models Project. Working Paper Number Eleven.
Shariati, A. 1980. Marxism and other western fallacies. An Islamic Critique. Translated by. R. Campbell,36. Berkeley: Mizan Press.
Somavia, Juan. 1976."Transnational power structure and international information: Elements of a Third World Policy for Transnational News Agencies.” Development Dialogue 2.
Thee, Marek (ed.).1982. Armaments, arms control and disarmament. A UNESCO reader for disarmament education. Paris: UNESCO.
How to Cite
Published articles are under the copyright of the Instiute of Asian Studies, Chulalongkorn University. Partially or totally publication of an article elsewhere is possible only after the consent from the editors.