ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru <p>วารสารวิจัยราชภัฏกรุงเก่า สาขามนุษยศาสตร์และสังคมศาสตร์ มีวัตถุประสงค์</p> <p> 1. เพื่อเผยแพร่บทความวิจัย และบทความวิชาการ ในสาขามนุษยศาสตร์และสังคมศาสตร์ โดยครอบคลุม ด้านบริหารธุรกิจ ด้านการศึกษา ด้านรัฐศาสตร์ ด้านนิติศาสตร์ ด้านวัฒนธรรม สังคม เศรษฐกิจ และประวัติศาสตร์</p> <p> 2. เพื่อเป็นสื่อกลางการแลกเปลี่ยนองค์ความรู้ใหม่ ในสาขามนุษยศาสตร์และสังคมศาสตร์ </p> <p> นโยบายการจัดพิมพ์คือวารสารเปิดรับบทความวิจัยแบบเต็มรูปแบบ และบทความวิชาการ จากภายในและภายนอกมหาวิทยาลัย โดยบทความดังกล่าวจะต้องไม่เคยเผยแพร่ในวารสารอื่นใดมาก่อน และเป็นข้อคิดเห็นของผู้ส่งบทความเท่านั้น กำหนดออกเผยแพร่ ปีละ 3 ฉบับ ดังนี้ มกราคม – เมษายน, พฤษภาคม – สิงหาคม, กันยายน – ธันวาคม </p> Research and Development Institute of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University en-US ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences 2408-0942 <p>อยู่ระหว่างการปรับปรุง (ลิขสิทธิ์และการรับผิดชอบ)</p> Problems on Enforcement of the Ancient Monuments, Antiques, Objects of Art and National Museum Act, B.E. 2504 (No.2, B.E. 2535). A case study of the use of power and administrative management in the historical area of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/253445 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The aims of this research were 1) to study the use of power by administrative officials in permitting or not permitting construction of buildings in the historical area of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. 2) to study the participation of the people and government agencies in the area management by administrative officials in the historical area of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya. The concepts, theories, laws, and the constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2560, good governance, and the convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural heritage, A.D. 1972, were studied in this qualitative research. The data was analyzed by content analysis. Furthermore, the information was presented in a descriptive format for each issue. The result showed that the use of power by the director of the fine arts department in permitting or not permitting construction of buildings in the historical area of Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya inconsistent with the law, and that interpretation of the law beyond the jurisdictional boundary without the legal power base was contrary to the basic principles of administrative law. In addition, the area management lacks participation from people and government agencies in the area, which is inconsistent with the constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand, B.E. 2560, good governance, and the convention concerning the protection of the world&nbsp;cultural and natural heritage, A.D. 1972 which Thailand has signed as a member.</p> ปัณณธร หอมบุญมา Dhatree Mahantarat Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-31 2022-01-31 9 1 1 14 The Development of Movement Activities Program for Enhancing Cognitive Skills of Student Teachers https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257738 <p>The purpose of this research aimed (1) to develop of movement activities program for enhancing cognitive skills of student teachers; and (2) to compare the results of using&nbsp; &nbsp;a movement activity program for enhancing cognitive skills of student teachers. The population consisted of 146 Bachelor of Education Program in Physical Education students who were studying at the Faculty of Education, Phranakhon Si Ayutthaya Rajabhat University. The sample consisted of 60 first year, and third year, Bachelor of Education Program in Physical Education students. The research was obtained through the cluster random sampling. The research instruments were the movement activities program for enhancing cognitive skills of student teachers, and the cognitive skills tests. The statistics employed in the analysis of data were the mean, the standard deviation, and the t-test for dependent. The research results were as follows: (1) The movement activities program had been developed for enhancing cognitive skills of student teachers. It consisted of 9 components, including &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;1) background and importance, 2) objectives, 3) goals, 4) pattern and method, 5) structure of program, 6) content, 7) guidelines for activities, 8) techniques and tools, and 9) measurement and evaluation. The movement activities program had the overall evaluation results of suitability at the highest level; and (2) The results of the movement activities program for enhancing cognitive skills of student teachers revealed that after using this program,&nbsp; the student teachers had higher scores of cognitive skills than before using. The results were statistically significant difference at .05 level</p> Chanakarn Kaosamlee Jiraporn Meesanga Jiraporn Meesanga Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 15 26 Civil and Penal Action : The Study of Legal Aid According to Thai Criminal Procedure Code Article 44/2, Paragraph Two https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257786 <p>The objectives of this independent study are 1) to study a lawyer role ,and an assistance to the victim in the claim of indemnity both Thailand and abroad, and 2) to analyze the problem ,and obstacle of the lawyer ,and the assistance to victim in the claim of indemnity in Thailand, This independent study is a qualitative research using documentary research method from textbooks, books, and articles of law of Thailand ,and foreign countries, articles, dissertations, thesis, research papers, journals, documents, including judicial judgements of Thailand and foreign countries, as well as data from electronic media, and the governmental organizations which have provided the legal assistance to the public.</p> <p>The finding of the research indicated that: 1) At international level, the emphasis is highlighted on the protection of the rights of the criminal victims or the injured persons in the criminal case, taking into account the human dignity, rights, freedom, and equality before the law. Despite of Japan and United States of America, no laws have been enacted which the lawyer assistance regarding the claim of indemnity shall be directly provided to the victim. However, the private agencies or the government officers take part to assist the victim regarding the claim of indemnity from the beginning until the end of process. Although Thai legislation have been enacted about the lawyer assistance to the victim, but it has been the assistance in the final step of process; 2) In Thailand, the lawyer is appointed from the court pursuant to Section 44/2 paragraph two that prescribes the condition of which the victim has to fill a petition to enforce the defendant to pay the compensation under the section 44/1 beforehand, which has caused the complicated burden for the victim due to the complexity of the criminal justice ,and the requirement of orderly proceedings,&nbsp; resulting in the difficulty on requesting the court’s enforcement against the defendant for reimbursing the indemnity.&nbsp; For convenient, rapid, and fair access of the victim to the justice, the researcher has suggested to appeal Section 44/2 paragraph two of the Criminal Procedure Code, and add the following statements in Section 44/1 paragraph four thereof that if it is appeared to the court that the victim pursuant to the paragraph one is poor, and unable to procure the lawyer by himself/herself, the court shall have power to appoint the lawyer for the said person. The appointed lawyer is entitled to receive gratuity, and charge according to the rules prescribed by the Judicial Administration Commission.</p> Khwandaw Kaewhad Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 27 38 The Performance Measurement of Saving Cooperative by Economic Value Added : A Case Study of SME Bank Savings and Credit Co-operative Limited https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257791 <p>The objectives of this research aimed (1) to study the performance of SME Bank Savings and Credit Co-operative Limited; and (2) to compare the performance analysis by using Economic Value Added method (EVA) with the Financial Ratio Criteria.&nbsp; The quantitative data analyzed the secondary information which was distributed by the annual report of SME Bank Savings and Credit Co-operative Limited, from 2011 to 2019.</p> <p>&nbsp;The results have found that the performance evaluation using EVA was positive and tended to increase according to the direction of the net profit in the financial statements. In terms of comparing EVA with various financial ratio criteria, it performed that the financial ratios on each side were both moving in the same direction as EVA and not moving in the same direction as EVA, for different measurement purposes. The cooperative could apply the EVA performance assessment with the performance measurement using the financial ratio criteria. To add analyzing dimensions and performance measurement, it also enhanced the managing cooperative funds.</p> Thachawee Trakulpadetkrai Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 39 50 The Development of Souvenir Products from Tie Dyed Pandan Weaving for Malaysian Tourists of Wang-phaya Raman District, Yala Province https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257792 <p>The purpose of this research was to study the decision-making behavior of Malaysian tourists in buying basketry as a souvenir. The results of the behavior will be developed the product made from local materials which was Tie Dyed Pandan Weaving, and measured their satisfaction of the products after being developed. The data were collected by using 400 convenience sampling in each group. The study used action research process which consisted of four steps: Plan, Act, Observe, and Reflection. The questionnaires were used in this research to study the decision-making behavior of Malaysian tourists in buying basketry as a souvenir, and their satisfaction of the products after being developed. The data from the questionnaire distributed the frequency, percentage, and mean.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The results of this research showed that 1) The decision-making behavior of Malaysian tourists in buying basketry souvenirs consisted of bags, tableware products, and stationery products. The product appearance preferred to be a set of pastel tone with&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; 3-5 pieces per set. Looking for quality products which were useful, and practical, as their main purpose is to buy for family members. 2) Souvenir products, which made from local materials, Tie Dyed Pandan Weaving have been developed by considering and still maintaining the local wisdoms of the community and identity in Wang-phaya Raman District, Yala Province. As the result, there were 3 set of products, namely the pastel bag set, the pastel tableware set, and the pastel stationery set. 3) The results showed that most of Malaysian tourists satisfied the set of tableware with pastel tone. At the average of 49.00, due to their view on the product.&nbsp; It was a quality, practical, contemporary, beautiful, and creative product. Additionally, it has also performed the highest purchasing decision.</p> Usanee Promsriya Apsorn E-sor Jiraporn Kiadtinaruemol Chompunuch Sriphong Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 51 64 Using Google Classroom to Improve Academic Achievement in Community Health Management Courses for Students of Social Development Program, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani Campus https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/250701 <p>This research aimed 1) to compare academic achievement before and after using Google Classroom in community health management courses, for students of Social Development Program; and (2) to study the satisfaction of students in the Social Development Program towards teaching and learning management by using Google Classroom in community health management courses for students of Social Development Program, faculty of humanities and social sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Pattani campus. There were 15 students studying in the first semester of the academic year 2021. The data collection tools were (1) Google Classroom (online classes), 2) the learning achievement form in the course of community health management, and 3) the assessment form. teaching ,and learning management with the opinions of students data were analyzed using percentage, mean, standard deviation, efficiency ,and t-test.</p> <p>The results founded that: 1) teaching using the Google Classroom online teaching and learning management system in the course of community health management with 100 percent of the grade point average. The learning achievement posttest score was higher than the pretest score at the significance of .01; 2) student satisfaction towards teaching and learning management through Google Classroom in community health management courses for social development students. It performed that the students' overall satisfaction was at a high level (xˉ = 4.15, S.D. = .65). The learning process should be promoted to the learners in a variety of virtual environments in the current situation.</p> jirachaya jeawkok Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-29 2022-04-29 9 1 65 76 A Study of Thai Writing in Prathom Suksa 6 Students Using a Participatory Teaching Method at Moonmang Luangpoochob Thansamo School, Chiang Khan District, Loei Province https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257799 <p>For a study of Thai writing of Prathom Suksa 6 students using a participatory teaching method at Moonmang Luangpoochob&nbsp; Thansamo school in academic year 2018, there were 90 students. The study tools consisted of interview form, observation form, and focus group discussion form. The data was analyzed by content analysis. The data presented by descriptive analysis.</p> <p>The results of this study were as follows: (1) Writing the classifier was wrong. There were 149 words that students have written wrongly, the cause of wrong writing as follow; the students have imitated the words from the chat room in social network, and they were poor basic Thai grammar; because they came from different places. (2) It was misspelled words, there were 49 words. The main reasons for frequent misspellings, and the writing error have been memorizing a misspelled example, or a mismatch of a wrong word. (3) For writing the words in wrong meaning, there were 43 words. They were divided into 2 issues as follows: 1) The students used the words in wrong meaning. They used the words which have not derived the meaning of the writer as intended, and they made the communicative error including with 34 words. The cause of wrong writing was negligence, failing to investigate firstly the meaning of the word; because remembering the words in social media could be incorrectly written. 2) In terms of using conflicting words, when students used words in sentences carelessly. It could make the confusion in communication or misunderstand the recipient. From the study results and interviews with students in using conflicting words, there were 10 words. The cause performed the misunderstanding in the meaning of word.</p> Vitchupong Worasatkul Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 77 90 The Factors Predicting Student’s Satisfaction in Community Health Program, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257796 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The purposes of this research were 1) to investigate factors predicting student’s satisfaction in community health program, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University; 2) to study the level of student’s satisfaction towards community health program, Chiang Mai Rajabhat University; and 3) to synthesize the suggestion on community public health curriculum. The sample was 140 students and 20 stakeholders. The data was collected by questionnaires, informal interview, and focus group discussion from January to March 2019. The data was analyzed by descriptive statistics, regression analysis, and content analysis. The results indicated that student’s satisfaction in community health program were on the high level. The significantly predicting factors of student’s satisfaction were activity participation (p = 0.011). The total variances were significantly predicted at 48.4. The stakeholders have suggested doing activity participation of students throughout the learner, instructor, and teaching-learning model.</p> Atchara Kumfun Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 91 100 A Career Project–Based Learning Management Affecting on Occupation Competencies for Junior High School Students https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257807 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For this study, it was the research on a career project-based learning management affecting on occupation competencies for junior high school. The objective of this research was to enrich occupation competencies for grade 8 students through a career project-based approach titled “Plantation for Local Sales.” This research was conducted as a quasi-experimental research. The sample consisted of 37 grade 8 students studying career and technology strand, in the first semester of the academic Year 2019, at Saraburiwitthayakhom school in Saraburi province. The study was selected by using multi-stage random sampling. The research instruments were 1) lesson plans with career project-based activities, 2) an occupation competency assessment form. The statistics for data analysis were mean, standard deviation, t-test, and repeated measure ANOVA.The findings indicated that: The grade 8 students learned through the career project-based approach on the specified topic had highly provided a significant improvement at 0.5 level on 5 out of 6 indicators of the career and technology strand.</p> Yuwadee Chaithaisong Suwana Juithong Suwana Juithong Angkana Karnanyathikun3 Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 101 110 Creative Tourism Management Enhancing Participation and Potential of Community Tourism in Pathum Thani Province https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/254502 <p> This research aimed to study 1) the influence of creative tourism management on community tourism potential, 2) the influence of creative tourism management on community involvement, and 3) the influence of community involvement on community tourism potential in Pathum Thani province from January to December, 2021. The population is 114,988 of Thai tourists visiting Pathum Thani province. According to the formula of Hair et al. (2010), the determined sample size sufficient for estimation and statistic was used. The researcher collected data from Thai tourists visiting Pathum Thani province. A total of 290 samples were obtained. The instrument was implemented for content validity from 3 experts, and the reliability was determined. The statistics used in the data analysis were percentage, mean, standard deviation, path analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis.</p> <p> The results showed that.</p> <ol> <li>Community tourism potential in Pathum Thani province has been influenced with total effect by creative tourism management (TE=0.821) at the statistically significant level with predictive power of 80.80 %.</li> <li>Creative tourism management has been influenced with total effect by community involvement (TE=0.820) at the statistically significant level with predictive power of 65.30%. The community tourism potential in Pathum Thani province has been influenced with total effect by community involvement (TE = 0.606) at the statistically significant level.</li> <li>Community tourism potential contained the most significant factor including attractive tourist destination (λy<sub>1</sub>). Community involvement contained the most significant factor including participation in monitoring and evaluation (λy<sub>9</sub>), and creative tourism management contained the most significant factor including direct experience in attractive tourist place (λX<sub>2</sub>).</li> </ol> <p> </p> Krisada Chienwattanasook Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 111 124 The Constitutional Court: Court of Justice or Political Court https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257808 <p><strong>Abstract</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;Constitution is considered the highest law of the country that no laws do not “contradict.”&nbsp; Therefore, to ensure that any law or ordinance may be “contradictory or opposing” to the Constitution. It is necessary to have an "organization" to consider, examine, and judge which initially has been established "Constitutional tribunal”, and was established in accordance with the provisions of the 1946 B.E. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand which was later named “Constitutional Court” by the 1997 B.E. Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; At present, the "Constitutional Court" is challenged regarding its legitimacy of existence, while the establishment of other courts, including the "Administrative Court", "Intellectual Property Court", "Court of Justice", "Military Court”, or "Labour Court." All of these have established statutory laws, but the "Constitutional Court" does not.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Therefore, it is questionable whether the rulings of the "Constitutional Court" are justified by the law.</p> Boonsong Chaletorn Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 125 134 Online Focus Group Discussion: Qualitative Data Collection Technique in the Era of Social Distancing The Online Focus Group Discussion: Qualitative Data Collection Technique During the Period of Social Distancing https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/249759 <p> This article aimed to present the online focus group discussion technique as a qualitative data collection alternative in social distancing situation due to the threat of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The paper emphasized on history and fundamental concept of focus group discussion, types of online focus group; comprised the synchronous format, in which participants from different locations were required to engage in group discussion at the same time, and the asynchronous format, in which participants from different locations joined the group and discussed the topics at the different time. In addition, it also presented a guideline for conducting and managing online focus group discussion, beginning from before the session starts, leading to during the session, and after the session of online focus group discussion. This qualitative data collection technique revealed many advantages and limitations. Researchers should take into account and consider some information for further implementation appropriately.</p> วรานันท์ อิศรปรีดา Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 135 148 The Data Analysis in Research for Development by Using PSPP Program https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/249778 <p>The objective of this academic paper aims to present a method for data analyzing in research for learning development. By using PSPP program, it is a free statistical package program. This program is suitable for data analysis in research to improve learning. The program saves time and reduce the discrepancies which may occur in research including 2 main points; the appropriate choosing statistics program in research to improve learning, namely the level of measurement of variables, and the methods for analyzing data in learning development throughout PSPP program. This article also analyzes data by using descriptive statistics, comparing with the mean difference, and analyzing the reliability of research instruments to obtain accurate data analysis.</p> Rachadaporn Tantikul Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 149 162 How to Call out Legally: A Case of Calling out toward the Government Administration on the Coronavirus Outbreak https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257809 <p>This article aims to study and to analyze about people’ call out especially in famous people or influencers in Thai society regarding government administration in the situation of Coronavirus outbreak (COVID-19) in a sense of illegality. The Constitution of the Kingdom of Thailand B.E. 2560 and the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), as one of the members of ICCPR, has laid down the principle which Thai people have the right to express independently. However, it does not mean that the freedom of expression can be done without exception. Those acts must be underneath the law framework enacted by the constitution of the kingdom of Thailand in protecting people’ rights or liberties, maintaining peace or good morals, or protecting public health, including opinion expression. It mentioned that opinion expression must be under the Criminal Code which is a law protecting people’ rights, peace, or morals of people. Therefore, the call out for expressing opinions about the government administration can be done by Thais within the law framework.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Umaporn Sitthiburanaya Copyright (c) 2022 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 163 176 Tax burden of doing academic research https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/rdi-aru/article/view/257810 <p>Paying taxes is a duty which everyone has to obey the law. The law requires taxpayers to pay taxes to the government for the government's expenses in the administration and development of the country. Therefore, if the researchers have received financial research, assets, or benefits which may be calculated in terms of income, they are obliged to submit their own return form to properly calculate the tax for the government. The tax burden however incurred on all researchers. There are differences depending on the nature of the relationship between the donor and the recipient. This makes a difference and is unfair to collect good tax; because researchers take financial research which received as income with other income. Particularly, in the case that the researcher does not receive any compensation for conducting research. Consequently, researchers have to pay more tax burden; since Thailand uses progressive income tax rates. Due to have the more income, researchers must pay the higher tax rate. The government should have a way to reduce the tax burden of the researcher by exempting, or reducing the tax rate. It should separate the tax calculation without being combined with other types of researcher income. For the incentivize professors in various educational institutions who are interested in doing research, they won’t concern about the additional tax burden of doing research.</p> Pongborworn prasugtsangchan Copyright (c) 2022 ARU Research Journal Humanities and Social Sciences https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-30 2022-04-30 9 1 177 187