• Tshering Pem -Rangsit University
  • Nipaporn Sakulwongs Suryadhep Teachers College, Rangsit University


Play-based Learning, Learning Achievement, Attitude, Guided Play, Free Play


The objectives of this mixed method study were to compare the learning achievement and attitude of grade 5 Bhutanese students before and after the use of play-based learning. Tests for learning achievement were employed to collect the quantitative information (pre-test and post-test). The qualitative data was gathered through semi-structured interview and structured observation. The outcome showed that the mean score on the pre-test was 11.43, while the mean on the post-test was 23.01, representing a mean difference of 11.58, it was clear that play-based learning had helped students learn more effectively. A paired sample t-test in the table also displays a significant value of .01 which indicated the significance of the test. According to the results of semi-structured interview and structured observation, students were not only motivated and satisfied to learn science through play-based learning, but also developed positive attitude towards the subject. The following themes; 1) Fun, 2) Self confidence, 3) classroom participation and 5) Performance improvement showed how much the students got the opportunity to work with their friends which made them comfortable enough to freely share what they thought.

Author Biography

Nipaporn Sakulwongs, Suryadhep Teachers College, Rangsit University

Lecturer in Master of Curriculum and Instruction, Suryadhep Teachers College, Rangsit University


Akpan, V. I., Igwe, U. A., Mpamah, I. B. I., & Okoro, C. O. (2020). Social constructivism: Implication on teaching and learning. British Journal of Education, 8(8), 49-56. Retrieved from

Bowker, M. (2020). Benefits of incorporating Howard Gardner’s multiple intelligences theory into teaching practices (Master’s thesis, California State University). Retrieved from

Curriculum Development Centre. (2021). New Normal Curriculum Instructional Guide General Science V. Paro: Royal Education Council.

Fiechtner, J. C., & Albrecht, K. M. (2019). The teacher’s role in supporting child-directed play. Innovation in Early Childhood Education Inc, 6(2), 3-6. Retrieved from Fiechtner%20and%20A

lbr echt.pdf

International Bureau of Education, UNESCO. (2010). Most influential theories of learning. Retrieved from influential-theories-learning

Jarvis, T., & Pell, A. (2012). Factors influencing elementary school children’s attitudes toward science before, during and after a visit to the UK national space. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 42(1), 53-83.

Kezang, N., & Chayanuvat, A. (2019). The application of place-based inquiry approach on grade 6 Bhutanese students in learning environmental science. Retrieved from

Larm, B., & Jaros, A. (2017). The art of scientific thinking: Why science is important for early childhood development. Retrieved from

Lewis, A. (2021). Free play for children- Broken down. Retrieved from children/

Marenus, M. (2020). Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences. Retrieved from

Ndayambaje, J. B., Bikorimana, E., & Nsanganwimana, F. (2021). Factors contributing to the students’ poor performance in biology subject: A case study of ordinary level in rural secondary schools of Rwamagana district. GSC Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences.15(03), 249-261.

Rennie, L. (2007). Learning science outside of school. In handbook of research on science education, 125-167 Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sahin, M. D., & Ozturk, G. (2019). Mixed Method Research: Theoretical foundations, designs and its use in educational research. International Journal of Contemporary Educational Research, 6(2), 301-310.

Tai, H. M., Shah, N. M., Hashim, N. N., & Mustafa, N. A. B. (2021). Play-based learning: A qualitative report on how teachers integrate play in the classroom. City University eJournal of Academic Research, 3(2), 62-73. Retrieved from


UNICEF. (2018). Learning through play. Strengthening learning through play in early childhood education programme. New York, USA: Author.

University of Cambridge. (2022). Learning through ‘guided’ play can be as effective as adult- led instruction up to at least age eight: Play-based learning may also have a more positive effect on younger children’s acquisition of important early maths skills compared with traditional, direct instruction. Retrieved from

Weisberg, D. S., Hirsh, P. K., & Golinkoff, R. M. (2013). Guided Play: Where curricular goals meet a playful pedagogy. Mind, Brain, and Education, 7(2), 104-112.

Weisberg, D. S., Hirsh-Pasek, K., Golinkoff, R. M., Kittredge, A. K., & Klahr, D. (2016). Guided play: Principles and practices. Current Directions of Psychological Science, 25(3), 177-182. doi:10.1177/0963721416645512




How to Cite

Pem, T., & Sakulwongs, N. (2023). THE APPLICATION OF PLAY-BASED LEARNING FOR A SCIENCE SUBJECT OF GRADE 5 BHUTANESE STUDENTS. Academic Journal Phranakhon Rajabhat University, 14(1), 55–68. Retrieved from



บทความวิจัย (Research Article)