Effect of Spokesperson Types and the Use of First Person Pronoun in Crisis Communication on Food Organization Reputation and Purchase Intention

Main Article Content

Sarinya Kongtieng
Rosechongporn Komolsevin
Ratanasuda Punnahitanond
Pacharaporn Kesaprakorn

Abstract

This study aims to better understand the effectiveness of using spokespersons and first person pronouns in two crisis situation clusters on food organization’s reputations and purchase intentions. Two hundred and eight students were randomly assigned into 12 experiment groups, creating a 2 (crisis clusters: victim vs preventable) X 3 (spokesperson types: CEO vs cartoon vs non-spokespersons) X 2 (first person pronouns: “I” vs “we”) factorial design. Data were collected using a questionnaire and analyzed using mean, standard deviation, and 3-way MANOVA. The results showed no significant effects of using different spokesperson and first person pronoun types on organization reputations in both victim and preventable crisis situation clusters, but the different effects were found on purchase intentions in both crisis clusters. When the organization was in the victim situation cluster, using cartoon with “I” first person pronoun can generate the highest purchase intention score. In the preventable crisis cluster, using CEO with “I” first person pronoun can generate the highest purchase intention score.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

Abbuhl, R. (2012). Using self-referential pronouns in writing: The effect of explicit instruction on L2 writers at two levels of proficiency. Language Teaching Research, 16(4), 501-518.

Ahn, S. J., & Bailenson, J. N. (2011). Self-endorsing versus other-endorsing in virtual environments: The effect on brand attitude and purchase intention. Journal of Advertising, 40(2), 93-106.

Allen, M. W., & Caillouet, R. H. (1994). Legitimation endeavors: Impression management strategies used by an organization in crisis. Communications Monographs, 61(1), 44-62.

Aron, A., Aron, E. N., Tudor, M., & Nelson, G. (1991). Close relationships as including other in the self. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60(2), 241-253.

Atcha, F. (1998). Job wanted, anywhere!. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, 158(13), 1688.

Avery, E. J., Graham, M., & Park, S. (2016). Planning makes (closer to) perfect: Exploring United States’ local government officials’ evaluations of crisis management. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management, 24(2), 73-81.

Benoit, W. L., & Brinson, S. L. (1994). AT&T:“Apologies are not enough”. Communication Quarterly, 42(1), 75-88.

Brantner, C., & Lobinger, K. (2014). Campaign comics: The use of comic books for strategic political communication. International Journal of Communication, 8, 248-274.

Brown, R., & Gilman, A. (1960). The pronouns of power and solidarity. In T. A. Sebeok (Ed.), Style in language (pp. 253-276). Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press. Retrieved June 7, 2018, from https://www.ehu.eus/seg/_media/gizt/5/5/brown-gilman-pronouns.pdf

Casañ-Pitarch, R. (2016). Case study on banks' webpages: The use of personal pronouns. International Journal of Language Studies, 10(4), 37-58.

Claeys, A. S., & Cauberghe, V. (2014). Keeping control: The importance of nonverbal expressions of power by organizational spokespersons in times of crisis. Journal of Communication, 64(6), 1160-1180.

Claeys, A. S., Cauberghe, V., & Leysen, J. (2013). Implications of stealing thunder for the impact of expressing emotions in organizational crisis communication. Journal of Applied Communication Research, 41(3), 293-308.

Coombs, W. T. (2014). Ongoing crisis communication: Planning, managing, and responding. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (1996). Communication and attributions in a crisis: An experimental study in crisis communication. Journal of Public Relations Research, 8(4), 279-295.

Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2002). Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets: Initial tests of the situational crisis communication theory. Management Communication Quarterly, 16(2), 165-186.

Fernando, T. A. (2013). The power of cartoons: Depicting the political images of Mahinda Rajapakse and Sarath Fonseka as presidential candidates. Media Asia, 40(3), 231-243.

Folse, J. A. G., Burton, S., & Netemeyer, R. G. (2013). Defending brands: Effects of alignment of spokescharacter personality traits and corporate transgressions on brand trust and attitudes. Journal of Advertising, 42(4), 331-342.

Garretson, J. A., & Niedrich, R. W. (2004). Spokes-characters: Creating character trust and positive brand attitudes. Journal of Advertising, 33(2), 25-36.

Gorn, G. J., Jiang, Y., & Johar, G. V. (2008). Babyfaces, trait inferences, and company evaluations in a public relations crisis. Journal of Consumer Research, 35(1), 36-49.

Greenberg, J., & Elliott, C. (2009). A cold cut crisis: Listeriosis, maple leaf foods, and the politics of apology. Canadian Journal of Communication, 34(2), 189-204.

Hayes, R. A., & Carr, C. T. (2015). Does being social matter? Effects of enabled commenting on credibility and brand attitude in social media. Journal of Promotion Management, 21(3), 371-390.

Heiser, R. S., Sierra, J. J., & Torres, I. M. (2008). Creativity via cartoon spokespeople in print ads: Capitalizing on the distinctiveness effect. Journal of Advertising, 37(4), 75-84.

Hong, S., & Len-Riós, M. E. (2015). Does race matter? Implicit and explicit measures of the effect of the PR spokesman's race on evaluations of spokesman source credibility and perceptions of a PR crisis' severity. Journal of Public Relations Research, 27(1), 63-80.

Karremans, J. C., & van Lange, P. A. M. (2008). Forgiveness in personal relationships: Its malleability and powerful consequences. European Review of Social Psychology, 19(1), 202-241.

Kiambi, D. M., & Shafer, A. (2016). Corporate crisis communication: Examining the interplay of reputation and crisis response strategies. Mass Communication and Society, 19(2), 127-148.

Kim, S., & Choi, S. M. (2014). Is corporate advertising effective in a crisis? The effects of crisis type and evaluative tone of news coverage. Journal of Promotion Management, 20(2), 97-114.

Kim, S., & Sung, K. H. (2014). Revisiting the effectiveness of base crisis response strategies in comparison of reputation management crisis responses. Journal of Public Relations Research, 26(1), 62-78.

Kraak, V. I., & Story, M. (2015). Influence of food companies' brand mascots and entertainment companies' cartoon media characters on children's diet and health: A systematic review and research needs. Obesity Reviews, 16(2), 107-126.

Lan, C., & Zuo, D. (2016). Pictorial-verbal metaphors in Chinese editorial cartoons on food safety. Metaphor and the Social World, 6(1), 20-51.

Lee, C. L. (2012). Self-presentation, face and first-person pronouns in the Analects. Journal of Politeness Research, 8(1), 75-92.

Lee, S., & Lariscy, R. (2008). Image repair in a food health crisis. In 58th Annual Conference of the International Communication Association 2008, Annual Meeting (pp. 1-36). Retrieved August 12, 2018, from https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=ufh&AN=36957152 &site=ehost-live

Lee, J., Kim, S., & Wertz, E. K. (2014). How spokesperson rank and selected media channels impact perceptions in crisis communication. Public Relations Journal, 8(2), 1-21.

Len-Ríos, M. E., Finneman, T., Han, K. J., Bhandari, M., & Perry, E. L. (2015). Image repair campaign strategies addressing race: Paula Deen, social media, and defiance. International Journal of Strategic Communication, 9(2), 148-165.

Liu, B. F., Fraustino, J. D., & Jin, Y. (2015). How disaster information form, source, type, and prior disaster exposure affect public outcomes: Jumping on the social media Bandwagon? Journal of Applied Communication Research, 43(1), 44-65.

Lovins, J. H. (2017). Effects of emotional words in crisis communication response messages on an organization’s trust, perceived credibility and public’s behavior Intent (Doctoral dissertation, Ohio University).

Loftus, S. (2015). Can "I" and "we" in accounting disclosures influence investors' perceptions of manager credibility and investment decisions? (Doctoral dissertation, University of Washington).

Manaf, A. A. A., & Alallan, Y. K. A. (2017). Examining the effectiveness of animated cartoon as brand awareness in TV advertisement: Evidence from survey in Malaysia and Jordan. International Journal of Business and Society, 18(3), 427-438.

Manns, H. (2012). First-person pronominal variation, stance and identity in Indonesia. Australian Journal of Linguistics, 32(4), 435-456.

McCroskey, J. C., & McCain, T. A. (n.d.). The measurement of interpersonal attraction. Retrieved January 26, 2016, from https://www.jamescmccroskey.com/publications/57.htm

McCroskey, J. C., & Teven, J. J. (1999). Goodwill: A reexamination of the construct and its measurement. Communications Monographs, 66(1), 90-103.

Moberg, U., & Eriksson, G. (2013). Managing ideological differences in joint political press conferences: A study of the strategic use of the personal pronoun ‘we’. Journal of Language and Politics, 12(3), 315-334.

Muralidharan, S., & Xue, F. (2015). Influence of TV endorser types on advertising attitudes and purchase intention among Indian rural women: An exploratory study. Asian Journal of Communication, 25(2), 213-231.

Neeley, S. M., & Schumann, D. W. (2004). Using animated spokes-characters in advertising to young children: Does increasing attention to advertising necessarily lead to product preference? Journal of Advertising, 33(3), 7–23.

Packard, G., Moore, S. G., & McFerran, B. (2015). How can “I” help “You”? The impact of personal pronoun use in customer-firm agent interactions. Retrieved March 27, 2018, from https://www.clsbe.lisboa.ucp.pt/pt-pt/system/files/assets/files/2015_paper_sarah_moore.pdf

Park, H., & Cameron, G. T. (2014). Keeping it real: Exploring the roles of conversational human voice and source credibility in crisis communication via blogs. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 91(3), 487-507.

Raymond, C. W. (2012). Reallocation of pronouns through contact: In-the-moment identity construction amongst Southern California Salvadorans. Journal of Sociolinguistics, 16(5), 669-690.

Shaikh, S., Feldman, L. B., Barach, E., & Marzouki, Y. (2016). Tweet sentiment analysis with pronoun choice reveals online community dynamics in response to crisis events. In S. Schatz, & M. Hoffman (Eds.), Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Cross-Cultural Decision Making (CCDM) (pp. 345–356). New York, NY: Springer. Retrieved December 20, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/304246343_Tweet_Sentiment_Analysis_with _Pronoun_Choice_Reveals_Online_Community_Dynamics_in_Response_to_Crisis_Events

Sickinghe, A. (2015). Speaking like 'us': Self- and other-categorization as Norwegian speakers in student interactions. Multilingua Journal of Cross-Cultural and Interlanguage Communication, 35(5), 483-511.

Suntornpitug, A. (1998). The influence of famous cartoon characters on teenage and early adulthood consumers’ attitude and purchase intention (Master thesis’s, Chulalongkorn University).

Thawornwongsakul, S. (2010). Effectiveness of cautionary picture on cigarette packages on emotion attitude and behavior of smokers (Master thesis’s, Chulalongkorn University).

Thomas, T. L., Kannaley, K., Friedman, D. B., Tanner, A. H., Brandt, H. M., & Spencer, S. M. (2016). Media coverage of the 2014 West Virginia Elk River chemical spill: A mixed-methods study examining news coverage of a public health disaster. Science Communication, 38(5), 574-600.

Tkaczyk, M. (2017). Between politicization and securitization: Coverage of the European migration crisis in Czech online news media. Communication Today, 8(2), 90-111.

Turk, J. V., Jin, Y., Stewart, S., Kim, J., & Hipple, J. R. (2012). Examining the interplay of an organization's prior reputation, CEO's visibility, and immediate response to a crisis. Public Relations Review, 38(4), 574-583.

van Zoonen, W., & van der Meer, T. (2015). The importance of source and credibility perception in times of crisis: Crisis communication in a socially mediated era. Journal of Public Relations Research, 27(5), 371-388.

Vidoloff, K. G., & Petrun, E. L. (2010). Communication successes and constraints: Analysis of the 2008 Salmonella saintpaul foodborne illness outbreak. Northwest Journal of Communication, 39(1), 65-90.

Wang, Y., & Wanjek, L. (2018). How to fix a lie? The formation of Volkswagen’s post-crisis reputation among the German public. Corporate Reputation Review, 21(2), 84-100.

Yılmaz, F. (2011). The politics of the Danish cartoon affair: Hegemonic intervention by the extreme right. Communication Studies, 62(1), 5-22.

Yilmaz, G. (2014). The tale of we, you and I: Interpersonal effects on pronoun use in virtual teams. Florida Communication Journal, 42(2), 27-39

Yoo, B., & Donthu, N. (2001). Developing and validating a multidimensional consumer-based brand equity scale. Journal of Business Research, 52(1), 1-14.

Zeevat, H. (2010). Optimal interpretation for rhetorical relations. In P. Kuhnlein, A. Benz, & C. L. Sidner (Eds.), Constraints in Discourse 2 (pp. 35-60). Philadephia, PA: John Benjamins Publishing.