The Use and Gratification of Social Media on Purchase Intention via Customer Brand Engagement of Gen X and Millennials

Main Article Content

Wimmala Pongpaew


 In this study, we apply the theory of uses and gratification to explore the types of motivation or benefit that influence customer engagement with brands in social media environment. Two generations of Thai customers are focused in this study: Generation X (Gen X) and the Millennials (Gen Y) in regard to online communities such as Facebook, LINE, YouTube, and Instagram.  This quantitative research employs SPSS and PLS-SEM software to analyze data. A total of 300 Gen X and 306 Millennial responses were collected and analyzed. The results indicated that information benefits do not influence customer brand engagement (CBE); however, entertainment, social and personal identity and self-disclosure influenced CBE for both generations. Moreover, CBE was also found to have a positive influence on purchase intention. This finding may help marketing managers to design social media online community strategies as well as develop appropriate content for both generations in Thailand.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pongpaew, W. (2020). The Use and Gratification of Social Media on Purchase Intention via Customer Brand Engagement of Gen X and Millennials. Executive Journal, 40(2), 34–50. Retrieved from
Research Articles


Ash, B. L. (2015). Using twitter to engage digital natives. Journal of Applied Research for Business Instruction, 13(2), 1-6.

Arya, V., & Verma, H. (2018). Social networking sites and brand attachment. SCMS Journal of Indian Management, 15(1), 96-109.

Baxter, L., Egbert, N., & Ho, E. (2008). Everyday health communication experiences of college students. Journal of American College Health, 56(4), 427-436.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74-94.

Bolton, R., Parasuraman, A., Hoefnagels, A., Migchels, N., Kabadayi, S., Gruber, T., Loureiro, Y., & Solnet, D. (2013). Understanding Generation Y and their use of Social media: A review and research agenda. Journal of Service Management, 24(3), 245-267.

Brosdahl, D. J. C., & Carpenter, J. M. (2011). Shopping orientations of US males: A generational cohort comparison. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 18(6), 548–554.

Cha, J. (2011). Exploring the Internet as a unique shopping channel to sell both real and virtual items: A comparison of factors affecting purchase intention and consumer characteristics. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 12(2), 115-132.

Chang, C. M. (2018). Understanding social networking sites continuance: The perspectives of gratifications, interactivity and network externalities. Online Information Review, 42(6), 989-1006.

Cheung, C. M. K., Lee, M. K. O., & Jin, X. L. (2011). Customer engagement in an online social platform: A conceptual model and scale development. Paper presented at Thirty Second International Conference on Information Systems, Shanghai.

Chin, W. W. (1998). The partial least squares approach to structural equation modeling. In G. A. Marcoulides (Ed.), Modern methods for business research (p.295-336). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Curras-Perez, R., Ruiz-Mafe, C., & Sanz-Blas, S. (2014). Determinants of user behavior and recommendation in social networks. An integrative approach from the uses and gratifications perspective. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 114(9), 1477-1498.

Dabija, D. C., & Grant, D. B. (2016). Investigating shopping experience and fulfilment in omnichannel retailing: A proposed comparative study in Romania and UK of generation Y consumers. In D. Menachof (Ed.), Proceedings of the 21st Annual Logistics Research Network (LRN) Conference (Vol. 21). The Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport in the UK (CILT UK).

Dabija, D. C., Bejen, B. M., & Tipi, N. (2018). Generation X versus Millennials communication behaviour on social media when purchasing food versus tourist services. Economics and Management, 21(1), 191-205.

Delafrooz, N., Paim, L. H., & Khatibi, A. (2010). Students’ online shopping behavior: An empirical study. Journal of American Science, 6(1), 137-147.

De Vries, N. J., & Carlson, J. (2014). Examining the drivers and brand performance implications of customer engagement with brands in the social media environment. Journal of Brand Management, 21(6), 495-515.

De Vries, L., Peluso, A. M., Romani, S., Leeflang, P. S., & Marcati, A. (2017). Explaining consumer brand-related activities on social media: An investigation of the different roles of self-expression and socializing motivations. Computers in Human Behavior, 75(10), 272-282.

Eighmey, J., & McCord, L. (1998). Adding value in the information age: Uses and gratifications of sites on the world wide web. Journal of Business Research, 41(3), 187-194.

Fornara, F., & Lomicka, L. (2019). Using visual social media in language learning to investigate the role of social presence. Calico Journal, 36(3), 184-203.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50.

Giarla, V. (2019). Generational social media: How social media influences the online and in-person relationships of Gen X, Gen Y And Gen Z (Bachelor’s thesis, Salem State University).

Gogan, I. C. W., Zhang, Z., & Matemba, E. D. (2018). Impacts of gratifications on consumers’ emotions and continuance use intention: An empirical study of Weibo in China. Sustainability, 10(9), 3162.

Gummerus, J., Liljander, V., Weman, E., & Pihlström, M. (2012). Customer engagement in a Facebook brand community. Management Research Review, 35(9), 857-877.

Hair, J. F., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1992). Multivariate data analysis with readings. New York, Macmillan.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: A global perspectives. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Hair, J. F., Gabriel, M. L. D. S., & Patel, V. K. (2014). AMOS covariance-based structure equation modeling (CB SEM): Guidelines on its application as a marketing research tool. Brazilian Journal of Marketing, 13(2), 44-55.

Hamel, K., Fenz, K., & Hofer, M. (2018). How to harness the spending power of millennials: Move beyond the US. Retrieved March 13, 2020, from

Haydam, N., Purcarea, T., Edu, T., & Negricea, I. C. (2017). Explaining satisfaction at a foreign tourism destination – An intra generation approach. Evidence within generation Y from South Africa and Romania. Amfiteatru Economic, 19(45), 528-542.

Ho, K. K. W., & See-To, E. W. K. (2017). The impact of the uses and gratifications of tourist attraction fan page. Internet Research, 28(3), 587-603.

Hollebeek, L. D. (2011). Exploring customer brand engagement: Definition and themes. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 19(7), 555-573.

Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S., & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, scale development and validation. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 28(2), 149-165.

Kamboj, S. (2019). Applying uses and gratifications theory to understand customer participation in social media brand communities: Perspective of media technology. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 32(1), 205-231.

Kemp, S. (2020). Digital 2020: Thailand. Retrieved February 2, 2020, from /reports/digital-2020-thailand

Kietzmann, J. H., Hermkens, K., McCarthy, I. P., & Silvestre, B. S. (2011). Social media? Get serious! Understanding the functional building blocks of social media. Business Horizon, 54(3), 241-251.

Kittikrairat, P., & Ogawa, T. (2016). The Thai market to watch and their players: Generation Y- The driving force of consumption trends in Thailand. Retrieved April 12, 2020, from

Kotler, P., & Bliemel, F. (2001). Marketing-management. Stuttgart: Schaeffer-Poeschel Verlag.

Marbach, J., Lages, C. R., & Nunan, D. (2016). Who are you and what do you value? Investigating the role of personality traits and customer perceived value in online customer engagement. Journal of Marketing Management, 32(5–6), 502–525.

Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Omar, A. S., Rashid, W. E. W., & Majid, A. A. (2014). Motivations using social networking sites on quality work life. Procedia Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, 524-531.

Permatasari, A., & Kuswadi, E. (2017). The impact of social media on consumers' purchase intention: A study of ecommerce sites in Jakarta, Indonesia. Review of Integrative Business and Economics Research, 6(s1), 321-335.

Salvation, M. D., & Sorooshian, S. (2018). The role of social media marketing and product involvement on consumers' purchase intentions of smartphones. Computational Methods in Social Sciences (CMSS), 6(1), 65-81.

Serra, D. E. S., & Soto-Sanfiel, M. (2014). When the user becomes a publicist: Motivations for EWOM on Facebook. Brazilian Journal of Marketing, 13(1).

Scheepers, H., Scheepers, R., Stockdale, R., & Nurdin, N. (2014). The dependent variable in social media use. Journal of Computer Information Systems, 54(2), 25–34.

Shao, G. (2009). Understanding the appeal of user-generated media: A uses and gratification perspective. Internet Research, 19(1), 7-25.

Solem, B. A. A., & Pedersen, P. E. (2016). The role of customer brand engagement in social media: Conceptualization, measurement, antecedents and outcomes. International Journal Internet Marketing and Advertising, 10(4), 223-254.

Suh, B., & Han, I. (2002). Effect of trust on customer acceptance of Internet banking. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 1(3-4), 247-263.

Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., & Morgan, R. M. (2012). Customer engagement: Exploring customer relationships beyond purchase. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 20(2), 122-146.

Whiting, A., & Williams, D. (2013). Why people use social media: A uses and gratifications approach. Qualitative Market Research: An International Journal, 16(4), 362-369.

Wiedmer, T. (2015). Generations do differ: Best practices in leading traditionalists, boomers, and generations X, Y, and Z. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 82(1), 51-58.

Young, E. (2015). How millennials get news: Inside the habits of America’s first digital generation. Chicago, IL: NORC Centre for Public Affairs Research & American Press Institute.