Microwave drying characteristics and qualities of dried orthosiphon aristatus leaves

Main Article Content

Vorapong Klungboonkrong
Singhanat Phoungchandang

Abstract

Orthosiphon aristatus (OA) is widely used in Southeast Asia as a traditional remedy for various illnesses, such as kidney stones, high blood pressure, diabetes, rheumatism, arthritis, gout and possibly others ailments. Vacuum blanched and unblanched OA leaves were dried in a microwave dryer (MWD) at 450, 720 and 900 W. Drying data were fitted to four thin layer drying models to describe microwave drying characteristics of the OA leaves. Physical and chemical properties were evaluated. The results revealed that a three‑parameter model was the most suitable drying model to describe the drying of AO leaves. It had the highest coefficient of determination (R2) as well as the lowest standard error of estimate (SEE) and root mean square error (RMSE). The drying times of unblanched and vacuum blanched AO leaves could be reduced by 66.7% and 50.0%, respectively, when the microwave outputs were increased from 450 W to 900 W. Dried OA leaves using MWD at 720 and 900 W in both treatments (vacuum blanched and unblanched) had the least color change. Vacuum blanched and dried OA leaves using MWD at 900 W were more porous and had less cell damage than other treatments. Vacuum blanched and dried OA leaves using MWD at 900 W showed the highest total phenolics, sinensetin and eupatorin contents. Processing OA leaves by vacuum blanching and then subjecting them to MWD at 900 W is the recommended drying method.


 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Research Articles

References

[1] Homasawin, N., 2013. Herb business opportunities in ASEAN market. Department of international trade
promotion, Ministry of commerce, Royal Thai government.

[2] Schut, G.A., Zwaving, J.H., 1993. Pharmacological investigation of some lipophilic flavonoids from
Orthosiphon aristatus. Fitoterapia 64, 99-102.

[3] Jirukkakul, N., 2017. Production and development of tomato crisps from tomato pomace. Asia-Pacific
Journal of Science and Technology 22, 1-5.

[4] Mujumdar, A.S., 2007. Handbook of industrial drying. 3th ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press 1280p.

[5] Yam, M.F., Mohamed, E.A.H., Ang, L.F., Pel, L., Darwis, Y., Mahmud, R., Asmawi, M.Z., Basir, R.,
Ahmad, M., 2012. A simple isocratic HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of sinensetin,
eupatorin, and 3’-hydroxy-5, 6, 7, 4’-tetramethoxyflavone in Orthosiphon stamineus extracts. Journal of
Acupuncture and Meridian Studies 4, 176-182.

[6] Muhammad, H., Gomes-Carneiro, M.R., Poça, K.S., De-Oliveira, A.C., Afzan, A., Sulaiman, S.A., Ismail,
Z., Paumgartten, F.J., 2011. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of Orthosiphon stamineus aqueous extract.
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 27, 647-653.

[7] Akowuah, G.A., Ismail, I., Norhayati, I., Sadikun, A., 2005. The effects of different extraction solvents of
varying polarities on polyphenols of Orthosiphon stamineus and evaluation of the free radical-scavenging
activity. Food Chemistry 93, 311–317.

[8] Association of Official Agricultural Chemists (AOAC)., 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC
International. AOAC International: Arlington, TX, USA.

[9] Klungboonkrong, V., 2016. Drying characteristics, drying models and storage stability of Orthosiphon
aristatus leaves. Khon Kaen University: Khon Kaen, Thailand.

[10] Potisate, Y., Phoungchandang, S., 2015. Microwave drying of Moringa oleifera (Lam.) leaves: drying
characteristics and quality aspects. KKU Research Journal 20, 11-22.

[11] Özbek, B., Dadali, G., 2007. Thin-layer drying characteristics and modelling of mint leaves undergoing
microwave treatment. Journal of Food Engineering 8, 541-549.

[12] Zogzas, N.P., Maroulis, Z.B., Marinos-Kouris, D., 1996. Moisture diffusivity data compilation in food stuffs.
Drying Technology 14, 2225-2253.

[13] Nourhene, B., Mohammed, K., Nabil, K., 2008. Experimental and mathematical investigations of convective
solar drying of four varieties of olive leaves. Food and Bioproducts Processing 86, 176-184.

[14] Dadali, G., Apar, D.K., Ozbek, B., 2007. Estimation of effective moisture diffusivity of okra for microwave
drying. Drying Technology 25, 1445-1450.

[15] Rayaguru, K., Routray, W., 2011. Microwave drying kinetics and quality characteristics of aromatic
pandanus amaryllifolius leaves. International Food Research Journal 18, 1035-1042.

[16] Minaei, S., Motevali, A., Ahmadi, E., Azizi, M.H., 2012. Mathematical models of drying pomegranate arils
in vacuum and microwave dryer. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology14, 311-325.

[17] Darvishi, H., 2012. Energy consumption and mathematical modeling of microwave drying of potato slices.
Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal 14, 94-102.

[18] Evin, D., 2011. Microwave drying and moisture diffusivity of white mulberry: experimental and
mathematical modeling. Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology 25, 2711-2718.

[19] Potisate, Y., Phoungchandang, S., Kerr, W.L., 2014. The effects of pre-drying treatments and different
drying methods on phytochemical compound retention and drying characteristics of moringa leaves
(Moringa oleifera Lam.). Drying Technology 32, 1970-1985.

[20] Gulati, A., Rawat, R., Singh, B., Ravindranath, S.D., 2003. Application of microwave energy in the
manufacture of enhanced-quality green tea. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 4764–4768.

[21] Jeong, S.M., Kim, S.Y., Kim, D.R., 2004. Effect of heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of extracts
from citrus peels. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 52, 3389–3393.

[22] Lee, S.C., Jeong, S.M., Kim, S.Y., Park, H.R., Nam, K.C., Ahn, D.U., 2006. Effect of far-infrared radiation
and heat treatment on the antioxidant activity of water extracts from peanut hulls. Food Chemistry 94, 489–493.

[23] Lee, S.C., Kim, J.H., Jeong, S.M., Kim, D.R., Ha, J.U., Nam, K.C., Ahn, D.U., 2003. Effect of far-infrared
radiation on the antioxidant activity of rice hulls. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51, 4400–4403.

[24] Xu, G., Ye, X, Chen, J., Liu, D., 2007. Effect of heat treatment on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant
capacity of citrus peel extract. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55, 330–335.

[25] Ballard, T.S., Mallikarjunan, P., Zhou, K., O’Keefe, S., 2010. Microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic
antioxidant compounds from peanut skins. Food Chemistry 120, 1185–1192

[26] Niwa, Y., Kanoh, T., Kasama, T., Neigishi, M., 1988. Activation of antioxidant activity in natural medicinal
products by heating, brewing and lipophilization. A new drug delivery system. Drugs Under Experimental
and Clinical Research 14, 361–372.

[27] Hayat, K., Zhang, X., Farooq, U., Abbas, S., Xia, S., Jia, C., Zhong, F., Zhang, J., 2010. Effect of microwave
treatment on phenolic content and antioxidant activity of citrus mandarin pomace. Food Chemistry 123, 423-429.

[28] Manzocco, L., Calligaris, S., Masrrocola, M.C., Nicoli, C.R., 2001. Review of non-enzymatic browning and
antioxidant capacity in processed foods. Trends in Food Science & Technology 11, 340-346.

[29] Anon., 2001. Orthosiphon. Medicinal and poisonous plants. Leidin: Buckhuys Publication, 368-371p.

[30] Dolečková, I., Rárová, L., Grúz, J., Vondrusová, M., Strnad, M., Kryštof, V., 2012. Antiproliferative and
antiangiogenic effects of flavone eupatorin, an active constituent of chloroform extract of Orthosiphon
stamineus leaves. Fitoterapia 83, 1000–1007

[31] Wojdyło, A., Figiel, A., Lech, K., 2013. Effect of convective and vacuum–microwave drying on the bioactive
compounds, color, and antioxidant capacity of sour cherries. Food and Bioprocess Technology 7, 829-841