Gender effect on various standing ability in elderly Thai population

Main Article Content

Theerasak Boonwang
Wichai Eungpinichpong
Kwanchanok Yimtae


Standing balance is important for daily living activities, especially in the aging population. The objective of this study is to determine the gender effects on standing ability in the elderly Thai population. A cross-sectional study was designed for Thais 60–80 years old (n=109). Eight standing balance tests consisted of bipedal on both a stable and foam surface and unipedal standing on the left and right legs. All tests were performed both with eyes open and with eyes closed. Sway velocity was significantly higher in women compared with men in Right leg standing with eye open condition (p=0.017). Differences between left and right leg were found in men during standing eyes-open tests (p=0.00). ANCOVA found no relationship between demographic data (BMI, weight, and height) and sway velocity in either men or women. Men presented better stability indicated by lower sway velocity on right leg standing balance tests. Balance exercises for the elderly should be implemented for both genders, especially for elderly women. In conclusion, gender differences were presented in one leg standing condition but no relationship between BMI and sway velocity was found in Thai elderly population.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Boonwang, T., Eungpinichpong, W., & Yimtae, K. (2019). Gender effect on various standing ability in elderly Thai population. Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 24(1), APST–24.
Research Articles


[1] Jacobson GP, Shephard NT. Balance Function Assessment and Management. 2nd ed. San Diaego: Plural Publishing; 2014.

[2] Alexandrov A, Frolov A. Horak F. Carlson-Kuhta P. Park S. Feedback equilibrium control during human standing. Biol Cybern. 2005; 93:309–22.

[3] Takeshima N, Islam MM, Rogers ME, Koizumi D, Tomiyama N, Narita M. Pattern of age-associated decline of static and dynamic balance in community-dwelling older women. Geriatr Gerontol. 2014; 14:556–60.

[4] Gelbard R, Inaba K, Okoye OT, Morrell M, Saadi Z, Lam L. Falls in the elderly: a modern look at an old problem. Am J Surg. 2014; 208:249–53.

[5] Sarabon N, Rosker J. Ability of different balance tests to discriminate between young and elderly subjects. Measurement. 2015; 68:42–8.

[6] Black FO. What can posturography tell us about vestibular function?. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2001; 942:446–64.

[7] Honaker JA, Janky KL, Patterson JN, Shepard NT. Modified head shake sensory organization test: Sensitivity and specificity. Gait Posture. 2016; 49:67–72.

[8] Goel R, De Dios YE, Gadd NE, Caldwell EE, Peters BT, Reschke MF. Assessing Somatosensory Utilization during Unipedal Postural Control. Front Syst Neurosci. 2017; 11:1-11.

[9] Stribley RF, Albers JW, Tourtellotte WW, Cockrell JL. A quantitative study of stance in normal subjects. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1974; 55:74-80.

[10] Era P, Avlund K, Jokela J, Gause-Nilsson I, Heikkinen E, Steen B. Postural Balance and Self-Reported Functional Ability in 75-Year-Old Men and Women: A Cross-National Comparative Study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1997:45:21–9.

[11] Hageman PA, Leibowitz JM, Blanke D. Age and gender effects on postural control measures. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1995;76:961-5.

[12] Masui T, Hasegawa Y, Matsuyama Y, Sakano S, Kawasaki M, Suzuki S. Gender differences in platform measures of balance in rural community-dwelling elders. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2005; 41:201–9.

[13] Overstall PW, Exton-Smith AN, Imms FJ, Johnson AL. Falls in the elderly related to postural imbalance. BMJ. 1977; 1:261–4.

[14] Oldfield RC. The assessment and analysis of handedness: The Edinburgh inventory. Neuropsychologia. 1971; 9:97–113.

[15] Goto S, Sasaki A, Takahashi I, Mitsuhashi Y, Nakaji S, Matsubara A. Relationship between cognitive function and balance in a community-dwelling population in Japan. Acta Otolaryngol. 2018; 138:471-474

[16] Desrosiers J, Hébert R, Bravo G, Rochette A. Age-related changes in upper extremity performance of elderly people: a longitudinal study. Exp Gerontol. 1999; 34:393-405.

[17]Greenspan SL, Myers ER, Maitland LA, Resnick NM, Hayes WC. Fall severity and bone mineral density as risk factors for hip fracture in ambulatory elderly. JAMA. 1994; 271:128–33.

[18] Panzer VP, Bandinelli S, Hallett M. Biomechanical Assessment of Quiet Standing and Changes Associated With Aging. 1995:76:151-7.

[19] Butler AA, Menant JC, Tiedemann AC, Lord SR. Age and gender differences in seven tests of functional mobility. J Neuroeng Rehabil. 2009; 6:31.

[20] Bryant EC, Trew ME, Bruce AM, Kuisma RME, Smith W. Gender differences in balance performance at the time of retirement. Clin Biomech. 2005;20:330–5.

[21] Melam GR, Buragadda S, Alhusaini A, Ibrahim AI, Kachanathu SJ. Gender Differences in Static and Dynamic Postural Stability Parameters in Community Dwelling Healthy Older Adults. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research. 2014; 22:1259-1264.

[22] Demura S, Yamaji S, Kitabayashi T. Gender and Age-related Differences of Dynamic Balancing Ability Based on Various Stepping Motions in the Healthy Elderly. J Human Ergol. 2005; 34:1-11.

[23] Cao C, Schultz AB, Ashton-Miller JA, Alexander NB. Sudden turns and stops while walking: kinematic sources of age and gender differences. Gait Posture. 1998; 7:45-52.

[24] Hurvitz EA, Richardson JK, Werner RA, Ruhl AM, Dixon MR. Unipedal stance testing as an indicator of fall risk among older outpatients. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000; 81:587–91.

[25] Oliveira MR, Vieira ER, Gil AWO, Fernandes KBP, Teixeira DC, Amorim CF, da Silva RA. One-legged stance sway of older adults with and without falls. PLoS One. 2018;13: e0203887.

[26] Porto HD, Pechak C, Smith D, Reed-Jones R. Biomechanical Effects of Obesity on Balance. International Journal of Exercise Science. 2012; 5:301-320.

[27] García-Hermoso A, Cavero-Redondo I, Ramírez-Vélez R, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB, Lee DC, Martínez-Vizcaíno V. Muscular Strength as a Predictor of All-Cause Mortality in an Apparently Healthy Population: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Data From Approximately 2 Million Men and Women. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2018; 99:2100-2113.

[28] Guralnik JM, Simonsick EM, Ferrucci L, Glynn RJ, Berkman LF, Blazer DG, Scherr PA, Wallace RB. A short physical performance battery assessing lower extremity function: association with self-reported disability and prediction of mortality and nursing home admission. J Gerontol. 1994;49:M85-94.