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This research aimed to assess the prevalence of insufficient sleep duration, its associated factors, and the association between short sleep duration and daytime sleepiness, depressive symptoms, and anxiety in Thai adolescents from both urban and rural areas. Thai adolescents aged 11-19 years completed a self-administered questionnaire consisting of items from the Phramongkutklao Hospital Sleep Disorders Center Questionnaire, Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) scale, and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorder (SCARED). A total of 1,259 Thai adolescents with a mean age of 15.66 ± 1.82 years participated in this survey. Of those, 55.6% were living in urban areas. The average sleep time was 7.2±2.8 h. The prevalence of insufficient sleep duration was 69% overall and 80.6% in urban students. According to multivariable analysis, a high school education level (odds ratio (OR) 2.12; 95% confidence interval (CI):1.38 - 3.25), excellent academic performance (OR 2.23; 95% CI: 1.31 - 3.80), irregular wake times (OR 1.9; 95% CI:1.28 - 2.84) and living in urban areas (OR1.97; 95% CI:1.29 - 3.02) increased the risk of insufficient sleep duration (p<0.05). This study confirmed that the average sleep duration in Thai adolescents was less than the recommended amount. Interestingly, short sleep duration was significantly associated with sleep quality index, depressive symptoms, and anxiety scores but not ESS score in our sample of urban adolescents.
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