Effect of torrefaction pretreatment for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse

Main Article Content

Prawit Kongjan
Satriya Sa-oh
Marisa Raketh
Sitihaya Malibo
Rattana Jariyaboon


Torrefaction is an appropriate pre-treatment technique to enhance the pore structure of lignocellulosic material for accelerating enzymatic reaction and subsequent ethanol production. This research aimed to study the effect of torrefaction pretreatment of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) derived from sugarcane juice squeezing on ethanol fermentation by the thermotolerant yeast Kluyveromyces marxianus in Semi-Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation (SSSF). The study examined the effect of different torrefaction times (10-60 min), temperatures (120-220°C), SCB particle sizes (0.3-2.0 mm and <0.3 mm) and initial solid loading (30 g/L and 100 g/L) to the fermentation and on the efficiency of ethanol production. The results showed that all the studied parameters affect and exhibit interaction with the ethanol yield. The higher torrefaction temperatures and time may lead to a higher ethanol production yield. However, the torrefaction at temperatures higher than 180°C and longer than 30 min, in which the inhibitors could also be produced, is not suggested due to the drop in ethanol yield observed. The highest ethanol global yield of 26.24% was obtained from the condition of 30 g/L solid loading of 0.3-2.0 mm SCB particle size torrefied at 180°C for 10 min corresponded to 23.95% ethanol global yield. The yield increased when compared with the non-torrefied SCB. This research reveals the feasibility of applying torrefaction pre-treatment to the SCB bio-refinery with the Eco-Efficiency concept.

Article Details

How to Cite
Kongjan, P., Sa-oh , S., Raketh, M., Malibo, S., & Jariyaboon, R. (2024). Effect of torrefaction pretreatment for ethanol fermentation from sugarcane bagasse. Asia-Pacific Journal of Science and Technology, 29(03), APST–29. https://doi.org/10.14456/apst.2024.45
Research Articles


Chandel AK, da Silva SS, Carvalho W, Singh O V. Sugarcane bagasse and leaves: foreseeable biomass of biofuel and bio‐products. J Chem Technol Biotechnol. 2012;87(1):11-20.

Khoo RZ, Chow WS, Ismail H. Sugarcane bagasse fiber and its cellulose nanocrystals for polymer reinforcement and heavy metal adsorbent: a review. Cellulose. 2018;25:4303-4330.

Ajala EO, Ighalo JO, Ajala MA, Adeniyi AG, Ayanshola AM. Sugarcane bagasse: a biomass sufficiently applied for improving global energy, environment and economic sustainability. Bioresour Bioprocess. 2021;8(1):1-25.

Kumar G, Dora DTK, Jadav D, Naudiyal A, Singh A, Roy T. Utilization and regeneration of waste sugarcane bagasse as a novel robust aerogel as an effective thermal, acoustic insulator, and oil adsorbent. J Clean Prod. 2021;298:126744.

Ungureanu N, Vlăduț V, Biriș S-Ștefan. Sustainable Valorization of Waste and By-Products from Sugarcane Processing. Sustainability. 2022;14(17):11089.

Kumar A, Kumar V, Singh B. Cellulosic and hemicellulosic fractions of sugarcane bagasse: Potential, challenges and future perspective. Int J Biol Macromol. 2021;169:564-582.

Mood SH, Golfeshan AH, Tabatabaei M, Jouzani GS, Najafi GH, Gholami M, et al. Lignocellulosic biomass to bioethanol, a comprehensive review with a focus on pretreatment. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2013;27:77-93.

Demirbas A, Arin G. An overview of biomass pyrolysis. Energy sources. 2002;24(5):471-482.

Bach Q-V, Skreiberg Ø. Upgrading biomass fuels via wet torrefaction: A review and comparison with dry torrefaction. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2016;54:665-677.

Nhuchhen DR, Basu P, Acharya B. A comprehensive review on biomass torrefaction. Int J Renew Energy Biofuels. 2014;2014:1-56.

Sheikh MMI, Kim C, Park H, Kim S, Kim G, Lee J, et al. Effect of torrefaction for the pretreatment of rice straw for ethanol production. J Sci Food Agric. 2013;93(13):3198-204.

Sheikh MMI, Kim C, Park H, Kim S, Kim G, Lee J, et al. Influence of torrefaction pretreatment for ethanol fermentation from waste money bills. Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2013;60(2):203-209.

Chaluvadi S, Ujjwal A, Singh RK. Effect of torrefaction prior to biomass size reduction on ethanol production. Waste and Biomass Valorization. 2019;10:3567-3577.

Sandoval-Nuñez D, Arellano-Plaza M, Gschaedler A, Arrizon J, Amaya-Delgado L. A comparative study of lignocellulosic ethanol productivities by Kluyveromyces marxianus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Clean Technol Environ Policy. 2018;20:1491-1499.

de Souza CJA, Costa DA, Rodrigues MQRB, dos Santos AF, Lopes MR, Abrantes ABP, et al. The influence of presaccharification, fermentation temperature and yeast strain on ethanol production from sugarcane bagasse. Bioresour Technol. 2012;109:63-69.

Ferreira PG, da Silveira FA, dos Santos RCV, Genier HLA, Diniz RHS, Ribeiro JI, et al. Optimizing ethanol production by thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7735 in a mixture of sugarcane bagasse and ricotta whey. Food Sci Biotechnol. 2015;24:1421-1427.

Limtong S, Sringiew C, Yongmanitchai W. Production of fuel ethanol at high temperature from sugar cane juice by a newly isolated Kluyveromyces marxianus. Bioresour Technol. 2007;98(17):3367-3374.

Sluiter A, Hames B, Ruiz R, Scarlata C, Sluiter J, Templeton D, et al. Determination of structural carbohydrates and lignin in biomass. Lab Anal Proced. 2008;1617(1):1-16.

Binod P, Sindhu R, Singhania RR, Vikram S, Devi L, Nagalakshmi S, et al. Bioethanol production from rice straw: an overview. Bioresour Technol. 2010;101(13):4767-4674.

Wang J, Yellezuome D, Zhang Z, Liu S, Lu J, Zhang P, et al. Understanding pyrolysis mechanisms of pinewood sawdust and sugarcane bagasse from kinetics and thermodynamics. Ind Crops Prod. 2022;177:114378.

Calixto GQ, Melo DMA, Melo MAF, Braga RM. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) of corn stover, bean pod, sugarcane bagasse, and pineapple crown leaves for biorefining. Brazilian J Chem Eng. 2021;1-10.

Baloch HA, Siddiqui MTH, Nizamuddin S, Mubarak NM, Khalid M, Srinivasan MP, et al. Catalytic co-liquefaction of sugarcane bagasse and polyethylene for bio-oil production under supercritical conditions: Effect of catalysts. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2021;153:104944.

Cavalcanti EJC, Carvalho M, da Silva DRS. Energy, exergy and exergoenvironmental analyses of a sugarcane bagasse power cogeneration system. Energy Convers Manag. 2020;222:113232.

Genet MB, Jembere AL, Tafete GA. Economical adsorbent developed from sugarcane bagasse for zinc (II) removal from wastewater. Water Air Soil Pollut. 2022;233(8):295.

Chang S, Zhao Z, Zheng A, He F, Huang Z, Li H. Characterization of products from torrefaction of sprucewood and bagasse in an auger reactor. Energy & Fuels. 2012;26(11):7009-7017.

Munir S, Daood SS, Nimmo W, Cunliffe AM, Gibbs BM. Thermal analysis and devolatilization kinetics of cotton stalk, sugar cane bagasse and shea meal under nitrogen and air atmospheres. Bioresour Technol. 2009;100(3):1413-1418.

Tsai WT, Chang CY, Lee SL, Wang SY. Thermogravimetric analysis of corn cob impregnated with zinc chloride for preparation of activated carbon. J Therm Anal Calorim. 2000;63:351-357.

Li K, Zhu C, Zhang L, Zhu X. Study on pyrolysis characteristics of lignocellulosic biomass impregnated with ammonia source. Bioresour Technol. 2016;209:142-147.

Prins MJ, Ptasinski KJ, Janssen FJJG. Torrefaction of wood: Part 2. Analysis of products. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2006;77(1):35-40.

Kang Q, Appels L, Tan T, Dewil R. Bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass: current findings determine research priorities. Sci World J. 2014;2014.

Doddapaneni TRKC, Cahyanti MN, Orupõld K, Kikas T. Integrating torrefaction of pulp industry sludge with anaerobic digestion to produce biomethane and volatile fatty acids: an example of industrial symbiosis for circular bioeconomy. Fermentation. 2022;8(9):453.

Tripathi J, Richard TL, Memis B, Demirci A, Ciolkosz D. Interactions of torrefaction and alkaline pretreatment with respect to glucose yield of hydrolyzed wheat straw. Biomass. 2022;2(4):264-278.