• Kriangsak Raksadeja Faculty of Fine Arts, Songkhla Rajabhat University


Christian, Cremona, sign, symbol, violin


The art of violin making was established in the 16th Century in Cremona, Northern Italy. During the Renaissance period, Christianity had a significant influence on culture, architecture, and arts. The early violin makers were inspired by a musical instrument appeared in moral paintings. The symbols used by highly skilled craftsmen and symbols in Christian arts were integrated to respect and make devotion to God. The inspiration also included the connection between the Church and that era's political and governance power. This article draws on the database of instruments from Amatus, Stradivarius, Guarnerius 'del Gesu', created during the golden period of violin making during 1556 - 1737, to analyze the signs, symbols, and their meanings to gain an understanding of the various symbols in the art of violin making, which has been continued to the modern violin makers.


พยานพระยะโฮวา. (2563). สวรรค์. สืบค้นเมื่อ 18 เมษายน 2564 จากหนังสือและสื่อ


เฟอร์กูสัน, จอร์จ. (2562). เครื่องหมายและสัญลักษณ์ในคริสตศิลป์ (กุลวดี มกราภิรมย์, ผู้แปล) (พิมพ์ครั้งที่ 9).

กรุงเทพมหานคร: อมรินทร์พริ้นติ้ง.

เสาวลักษณ์ สุวรรณภัค. (2556). การตีความสัญลักษณ์ของนักศึกษาที่เรียนภาษาไทยเป็นภาษาที่สอง โดยใช้บริบท

ทางวัฒนธรรมในวรรณกรรมไทย (วิทยานิพนธ์ปริญญามหาบัณฑิต). มหาวิทยาลัยเชียงใหม่, เชียงใหม่.

สืบค้นเมื่อ 20 สิงหาคม 2561 จาก

Badiarov, D. (2012). What is bridge?. Retrieved April 20, 2021, from


Badiarov Violins. (n.d.). Author, luthier, violoncello da spalla maker. Retrieved April 20, 2021, from


Barabaschi, A. (2015, December 2). Stradivari’s Medici Quintet, part 2. Retrieved April, 7, 2021,


Bein, R., & Fushi, G. (1998). Miracle Makers: Stradivari, Guarneri, Oliveira. Chicago, USA: Bein & Fushi.

D'Harmonie, B. (n.d.). Carved fittings. Retrieved August, 30, 2021, from

Ensign, A. (2020). The Fleur-de-lis and its meanings and uses. Retrieved June, 10, 2021, from

Fein, A. & Newgren, A. (2011). The Lady Blunt Stradivarius Violin. Retrieved April, 7, 2021, from

Foster, M. (2004). History of the Maltese Cross, as used by the order of St John of Jerusalem.

Retrieved June 26, 2021, from

Hill, W.H., Hill, A.F., & Hill, A.E. (1963). Antonio Stradivari: His life and work (1644–1737).

London, UK: Dover.

Hill, W.H., Hill, A.F., & Hill, A.E. (1965). The Violin-makers of the Guarneri family, 1626-1762.

London, UK: Dover.

Internet Cello Society. (2020). Tutti celli contents. Retrieved August 8, 2021, from

Luthier, K.L. (2006). Instruments by Antonio Stradivari: The 1693 Harrison Stradivari violin.

Retrieved June 30, 2021, from

Maccarrone, P.P. (2020). The Amati family. Retrieved June 30, 2021, from


Orphean Foundation. (2019). The oldest violin in history. Retrieved June 17, 2021, from

Parnell, C. (2015, March 12). Antonio Stradivari – Instrument maker for the divine. Retrieved

August 31, 2021, from

Pettit, S. (2018). Psalm 150: Hallelujah! encountering God. Retrieved June 23, 2021, from

Price, J. (2019, February 13). Giuseppe Rocca, the ‘ex-Maud Powell’: The 1856 Rocca violin

owned by Maud Powell, which was recently sold by Tarisio by private sale. Retrieved

April 16, 2021, from

Price, J. (2022, March 8). How the ‘da Vinci’ got its name. Retrieved April 15, 2022, from

Sirr, S. (2017). Scanning the heavens. In C. Smith (Ed.), The Strad. London, UK: Newsquest.

Sthvecu. (2019). The Medici: Benefactors of your sightseeing in Florence. Retrieved April 7, 2021,


Tarisio. (n.d.). Antonio Stradivari, Cremona, 1716, the ‘Messiah, Messie, Salabue. Retrieved April

, 2021, from

Zana Bihiku Tutt’Art. (n.d.). Gaudenzio Ferrari: The concert of angels, 1534-1536. Retrieved April 24, 2021,


Zygmuntowicz, S. (2006). Strad 3D Traditions meets Science. Retrieved August 18, 2021, from




How to Cite

Raksadeja, K. (2023). CHRISTIAN SIGNS AND SYMBOLS IN THE ART OF VIOLIN MAKING. Fine Arts Journal: Srinakharinwirot University, 27(2), 101–118. Retrieved from



Academic Article