Main Article Content
This study aims to explore teachers’ and students’ voices on the role of Thai and English in classrooms where English is a foreign language. Teachers of English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and university students provided the qualitative data. Two research questions were addressed in this study: 1) What role do Thai and English play in a classroom where English is a foreign language, and 2) what are their perspectives on Thai and English language teachers and students in a university where English is being taught as a foreign language? The qualitative analysis of the data indicates that in a classroom where English is a foreign language, Thai, English, and bilingual integration are indispensable. Participants in the study accepted that learning Thai strengthens the interaction between teachers and students in the classroom and decreases learners’ anxiety, tension, hesitation, and pressure. The English language is critical for learners to develop their speaking and pronunciation skills. The participants in the study also accepted that combining the two languages increases teacher teaching and that English language teachers should apply the research findings.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
1. Any views and comments in the FEU Academic Review Journal are the authors’ views. The editorial staff have not to agree with those views and it is not considered as the editorial’s responsibility.
2. The responsibility of content and draft check of each article belongs to each author. In case, there is any lawsuit about copyright infringement. It is considered as the authors’ sole responsibility.
3. The article copyright belonging to the authors and the Far Eastern University are copyrighted legally. Republication must be received direct permission from the authors and the Far Eastern University in written form.
Al-Alawi, T. M. (2008). Teachers’ beliefs and practices about the use of L1. In S. Borg (Ed.). Investigating English language teaching and learning in Oman. Muscat: Ministry of Education, Oman.
Al-Buraiki, M. A. (2008). The L1 in Young Learner Classrooms: Teachers’ Views and Practices. Retrieved November 15, 2020, from https://www.moe.gov.om/Portal/sitebuilder/sites/EPS/English/MOE/baproject/version2/Ch2.pdf.
Al-Nofaie, H. (2010). The attitudes of teachers and students towards using Arabic in EFL classrooms in Saudi public schools: a case study. Novitas-Royal. 4(1), 64-95.
Atkinson, D. (1987). The mother tongue in the classroom: a neglected resource. ELT Journal. 41(4), 241-247.
Auerbach, E. (1993). Re-examining English-only in the ESL classroom. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from https://ncela.ed.gov/files/rcd/BE019020/Reexamining_English_Only.pdf.
Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe, and do. Language Teaching. 36(2), 81-109.
Chaudon, C. (1988). Second language classrooms: research on teaching and learning. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Choomthong, D. (2014). Preparing Thai students’ English for the ASEAN economic community: some pedagogical implications and trends. Language Education and Acquisition Research Network (LEARN) Journal. 7(1), 45-57.
Collingham, M. (1988). Making use of students’ linguistic resources, in S. Nicholls & E. Hoadley-Maidment (Eds.), Current Issues in Teaching English as a Second Language to Adults. London: Edward Arnold, 85-96.
Cook-Sather, A. (2002). Authorizing student perspectives: Toward trust, dialogue, and change in education. Educational Researcher. 31(4), 3-14.
_____________. (2006). Sound, Presence, and Power: “Student Voice” in Educational Research and Reform. Curriculum Inquiry. 36(4), 359-390.
_____________. (2010). Students as learners and teachers: taking responsibility, transforming education, and redefining accountability. Curriculum Inquiry. 40(4), 555-575.
Cook, V. (2001). Using the First Language in the Classroom. Retrieved November 17, 2020, from http://lrc.cornell.edu/rs/roms/507sp/ExtraReadings/Section0/uploads/ File1331168619597/Cook-UsingtheFirstLanguageintheClassroom.pdf.
Duff, P. A. & Polio, C. G. (1990). How much Foreign Language is there in the Foreign Language Classroom? Retrieved November 17, 2020, from http://www.scribd.com/doc/88601948/Duff Polio-1990.
Ellis, R. (1994). Second Language Acquisition. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from http://22.214.171.124/dwer2ic474tg/5t4jnzizokt/Second+Language+Acquisition+_Rod+Ellis_+OUP_160+pp.pdf.
Galloway, N. & Rose, H. (2018). Incorporating global Englishes into the ELT classroom. ELT Journal. 72(1), 3–14.
Harbord, J. (1992). The use of the mother tongue in the classroom. ELT Journal. 46, 350-355.
Hargreaves, A. (1996). Revisiting voice. Educational Researcher. 25(1), 12-19.
Harmer, J. (1997). The practice of English language teaching. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from http://www.pearsonlongman.com/ukireland/pdf/esol/methodology/page17reviewnnsummer.pdf
Haycraft, J. (1978). An introduction to English language teaching. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/1647530.J_Haycraft.
Hubbard, P., Jones, H., Thornton, B. & Wheeler, R. (1983). A training course for TEFL. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from http://ebookee.org/search.php?q=%E2%80%A2%09Hubbard%2C+P%2C+H.+Jones%2C+B.+Thornton%2C+and+R.+Wheeler%2C+1983.
Hymes, D. H. (1966). Two types of linguistic relativity. In Bright, W. Sociolinguistics. The Hague: Mouton, 114–158.
___________. (1972). On communicative competence. Sociolinguistics, 269293, 269–293.
Kim, S. H. O. & Elder, C. (2008). Target language use in foreign language classrooms: Practices and perceptions of two native speaker teachers in New Zealand. Language, Culture and Curriculum. 21(2), 167-185.
Kolesnikova, I. L. (2005). English or Russian? English language teacher training and education. World Englishes. 24(4), 471-476.
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition and second language learning. Oxford: Pergamon.
_________. (1985). The Input Hypothesis: Issues and Implications. New York: Longman.
Levine, G. S. (2003). Student and instructor beliefs and attitudes about target language use, first language use, and anxiety: Report of a questionnaire study. The Modern Language Journal. 87(3), 344-364.
Littlewood, W. (1992). Teaching oral communication: A methodological framework. Oxford: Blackwell.
McMillan, B. & Turnbull, M. (2009). Teachers’ use of the first language in French immersion: Revisiting a core principle. In: Turnbull, M., Dailey- O’Cain, J. (Eds.), First Language Use in Second and Foreign Language Learning. Multilingual Matters, Bristol, 15-34.
Merriam, S. B. (2009). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco: John Wiley and Sons.
Miles, R. (2004). Evaluating the use of L1 in the English Language Classroom. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from http://www.bhamlive3.bham.ac.uk/Documents/collegeartslaw/cels/essays/matefltesldissertations/Milesdiss.pdf.
Mitchell, R. (1988). Communicative Language Teaching: in Practice. CILT: London.
Patton, M. Q. (2001). Qualitative Evaluation and Research Methods. (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Rogers, A. (2005). Student voice: Bridges to learning. Seattle: University of Washington.
Savignon, S. (1983). Communicative competence: Theory and classroom practice. Reading, MA: Addyson-Wesley.
Schwab, J. (1969). The practical: A language for curriculum. School Review. 78, 1-23.
Shuttleworth, M. (2008). Case Study Research Design. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from https://explorable.com/case-study-research-design.
SooHoo, S. (1993). Students as Partners in Research and Restructuring Schools. The Educational Forum. 57, 386-393.
Strauss, A. & Corbin, J. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.
Tang, J. (2002). Using L1 in the English Classroom. Retrieved December 10, 2020, from http://exchanges.state.gov/englishteaching/forum/archives/docs/02-40-1-h.pdf.
Tantiniranat, S. (2019). Stars & stripes and union jack: Exploring the presence of native-speaker cultures in an English major program. Journal of Language and Culture. 38(2), 202–221.
Thongwichit, N. (2013). L1 use with university students in Thailand: A facilitating tool or a language barrier in learning English? Silpakorn University Journal of Social Sciences, Humanities, and Arts. 13(2), 179-206.
Turnbull, M. (2001). There is a role for the L1 in second and foreign language teaching, but .... The Canadian Modern Language Review. 57(4), 531-540.
Vanichakorn, N. (2009). Re-examine the use of the students’ first language in the English as a foreign language classroom: a cross-case analysis from undergraduate engineering students in Bangkok, Thailand. Journal of College Teaching & Learning. 6(5), 1-16.
Wongsothorn, A., Sukamolsun, S., Chinthammit, P., Ratanothayanonth, P. & Noparumpa, P. (1996). National profiles of language education: Thailand. PASAA. 26, 89-100.