Designing Experiences Bicycle Networks as a Prototype for Southeast Asian Tourism’s Bike Route

Main Article Content

Sompong Luangluexay
Angunthip Srisuwan


                 This article aims to review the development and transformation of the bicycle network in cities, which can be a guideline for the tourism sector in Southeast Asia, with urban planning to design the bicycle route. By comparing the policy, infrastructure for cycling route and the design criteria of bicycle network in three cycling cities; namely, 1) Amsterdam; 2) Copenhagen; 3) Melbourne. And the development of bicycle use in Southeast Asia cities, namely 1) Bangkok; 2) Manila, and 3) Singapore. These cases studies would help to understand the development of bicycle use in each city, that has become a bicycle city and has led to the cycling trend of the tourism. They have formed a framework into strategy and policy to implement the bicycle route for tourism, by integrating bicycle network and urban planning, and create for cycling facilities guideline for tourism sector in Southeast Asia.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Alessandro Giovannini, Federico Nalucelli, and Maddalena Nonato. (2017). On the design of leisure devoted cycling network. Advanced Concepts, Methodologies and Technologies for Transportation and Logistics, 237-255.

Amsterdam and Bicycle. (2018). Amsterdam: City of Bikes. Retrieved on November 2018 from Dutch Amsterdam:

Angela Hull, and Craig O'Holleran. (2014). Bicycle Infrastruture: Can Good Design Encourage Cycling? Urban Planning and Transport Research, 373.

Austroads. (2014). Cycling Aspects of Austroads Guides. (Michael Levasseur, Ed.) Sydney, Austraria: Austroads Ltd.

Bicycle Network. (2017). History of Bicycle Network. Retrieved Bicycle Network: https://cam.bicyclenetwork.

Carlton Reid. (2017). Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cyling. Washington, Covelo, London: Island Press.

City of Melbourne. (1997). The History of the City of Melbourne. Melbourne: The Melbourne City Council.

City of Melbourne. (2013). Melbourne Bicycle Account. Melbouren: City of Melbourne.

City of Melbourne. (2016). Bicycle Plan 2016-2020. Melbourne: City of Melbourne.

Copenhagen Together. (2017). Copenhagen City of Cyclists. Copenhagen: Technical and Environmental Administration.

Copenhagenize Design Co. (2011). The Criteria for the Copenhagenize Index. Retrieved on December 2018 from Copenhagenize Design Company:

Cycling Embassy of Denmark. (2017). Facts About Cycling in Denmark. Retrieved on October 2018 from Cycling Embassy of Denmark:

Cycling Embassy of Great Britain. (2018). Dutch Cycle Infrastructure. Retrieved on November 2018 from Cycling Embassy of Great Britain:

DerZee Renate .(2015). How Amsterdam Became The Bicycle Capital Of The World. Retrieved on July 2018 from The Guardian:

Dirk Dufour, Ligtermoet, and Partners. (2010). Promoting Cycling for Everyone as a Daily Transport Mode. Brussels: European Cyclusts' Federation.

Government of Singapore. (2019). Cycling. Retrieved Ministry of Transport:

Gramham Cookson. (2561). INRIX Global Traffic Scorecard. Kirkland, North America: INRIX Research.

Herlihy V David. (2004). Bicycle the History. Tauton, United States of America: Quebecor World.

Hsin Li Chang, and Hsin Wen Chang. (2005). Comparision Between the Differences of Recreational Cyclists in National Scenic Bikeway and Local Bike Lane. Tourism, Leisure and Recreation, 2178-2193.

James Gabriel Martin. (2017). The Best Cities in the Worls fo Cycling in 2017 have been Revealed. Retrieved on October 2018 from Lonely Planet:

James Martin. (2018). A Concise Guide to Amsterdam. Retrieved on August 2018 from Tripsavvy: https://

Jen Jia Lin, and Rong Ying Liao. (2014). Bikeway network design model for recreational in scenic area. Networks and Spatial Economics, 9-31.

Jr. Dan smith. (1974). Bikeway. State Of The Art. San Francisco, California, United States of America: U. S. Department Of Transportation, Federal Highway Anministration.

Kiat W Tan. (2006). A Greenway Network for Singapore. Landscape and Urban Planning(76), 45-66.

Lane M Raymond. (2010). The History of the Bicycle. Retrieved on July 2018 from The Washington Post:

London Cycling Campaign. (2011). Lessons from the Netherland. London: London Cyclists Magazine.

Lukas Polikevicius. (2016). An Urban Environment Influenced by Cycling. London, England: Department of Architecture, University of Strathclyde.

Matthew Ulterino, Duncan Smith, Karl Banker, and Catarina Heeckt. (2014). Copenhagen: Green Economy Leader Report. London: The London school of Economics and Political Science.

Medilyn Manibo. (2015). Cycling in Asia: Operation new roads to Sustainability. Eco-Business the Future of Good Business(6), page 24.

Mikael Andersen. (2012). Danish Bicycle Infrastructure History. Retrieved on August 2018 from Copenhagenize:

Minh Ho. (2018). Market Report Asia Pacific: Regional Tourism Trends. Singapore: Horwart HTL Asia Pacific.

Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark. (n.d.). A nation of cyclists. Retrieved on October 2018 from Denmark.DK:

Pettinga, André; Rouwette, Anke; Braakman, Bas; Pardo, Carlosfelipe; Kuijper, Dirk; Jong, Hans de; Spapé, Ineke; Zuidgeest, Nark; Wittink, Roelof; Kager, Roland; Schepel, Steven; Godefrooij, Tom. (2009). Cycling-Inclusive Policy Development: A handbook. Utrecht, the netherlands: Interface for Cycling Expertise.

Phil Jarratt. (2016). History of Cycling in Australia. Retrieved on October 2018 from Australian Geographic:

Ralph Buehler, and John Pucher. (2012). Walking and Cycling in Western Europe and the United States. Making Way For Pesedtrians And Bicycles, 34.

Ramiro Alberto Ríos, Alejandro Taddia, CarlosFelipe Pardo, and Natalia Lleras. (2015). Washington, DC: Banco Interamericano de Desarrollo.

Reid Carlton. (2017). Bike Boom: The Unexpected Resurgence of Cyling. Washington, Covelo, London: Island Press.

Rodney Tolley. (2003). Sustainable Transport: Plannining For Walking And Cycling in Urban Environment. England: Woodhead Publishing Limitted.

Ruth Oldenziel, and Adri Albert de la Bruhèze. (2016). Europe A Century of Urban Cycling. in Ruth Oldenziel, Martin Emanuel, Adri Albert de la Bruhèze, Frank Veraart, Ruth Oldenziel, Martin Emanuel, Adri Albert de la Bruhèze, and Frank Veraart (n.d.), Cycling Cities:The European Experience. Eindhoven, the Netherlands: Foundation for the History of Technology.

Seventieth Session. (2015). Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 25 Septamber 2015. America: United Nation.

State Government Victoria. (2014). Plan Melbourne Metropolitan Planning Strategy. Melbourne, The State of Victoria: Department of Transportation, Planning and Local Infrastructure.

Statista. (2018). Total Population of Amsterdam from 2007 to 2017. Retrieved on November 2018 from Statista:

Stefan Bakker, Marie Danielle Guilen, Papondhanai Nanthachatchavankul, Mark Zuidgeest, CarlosFelipe Pardo, and Martin Van Maarseveen. (2018). Hot or not? The Role of Cycling in ASEAN Megacities: Case studies of Bangkok and Manila. International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, 12(1556-8318), 416-431.

The World Tourism Organization. (2017). 2017 Annual Report World Tourism Organization. Spain: Madrid.

Transport for Victoria. (2017). Victorian Cycling Strategy 2018-28: Increasing cycling for transport. Melbourne: Finsbury Green.

World Bank Group. (2019). The World Bank. Retrieved GDP per capita: NY.GDP.PCAP.CD?locations=PH