Urbanization in Myanmar: The Dynamics of Socio-Economic

Main Article Content

Anuk Pitukthanin

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to review the urbanization and urban development in Myanmar since the 2010s. This situation is related to the economic and social change in this country.


The analysis of data from documents and interviews with relevant parties found that Myanmar's economic growth since 2010 has led to rapid urbanization, resulting in a rising demand for products and services for the urban lifestyle. On its part, the Myanmar government has given importance to, and laid down a strategy for, the development of the country's central cities and those in its various regions as an essential engine of economic growth.


The growth and urbanization of Myanmar reflect the trends and major challenges facing the country’s socioeconomic situation in the near future. These challenges include the rise of the private sector to assume a leading role in urban development, the problems of migration of people being faced by the major cities, the increase in housing prices, and the socio-economic problems that come with urbanization.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

How to Cite
Pitukthanin, A. (2021). Urbanization in Myanmar: The Dynamics of Socio-Economic. SIA ARIDARSANA, 41(2), 40-63. etrieved from https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/asianreview/article/view/246995
Section
บทความวิจัย (Research Articles)
Share |

References

ภาษาไทย

““ชเวโก๊กโก่” ทำเลทองรัฐกะเหรี่ยง จ่อคอหอยเขตเศรษฐกิจพิเศษตาก.” 2528. เกาะติดข่าวภาคเหนือ, กรกฎาคม 9. https://northernnewsthailand.com/news/14552.
“ตามส่อง “ซุ่ยโก๊กโก่” อาณาจักรทุนจีนริมฝั่งเมียวดี พบเร่งสร้างบ้านหรู-คอมเพล็กซ์ใหญ่.” 2562. ผู้จัดการออนไลน์, พฤษภาคม 1. https://mgronline.com/local/detail/9620000041967.

ภาษาอังกฤษ

Annez, Patricia Clarke, and Robert M. Buckley. 2009. "Urbanization and Growth: Setting the Context." In Urbanization and Growth. The World Bank.

Arnold, Matthew, Aung Thu Ye, Susanne Kempel, and Chit Saw Kyi Pyar . 2015. Municipal governance in Myanmar: An overview of Development Affairs Organizations. Yangon: The Asia Foundation .

Ashayagachat, Achara. 2012.” Thailand needs fresh mindset in dealing with 'new' Myanmar.” Bangkok Post, April 1. https://www.bangkokpost.com/thailand/special-reports/286938/thailand-needs-fresh-mindset-in-dealing-with-new-myanmar.

Department of Population. 2014. Policy Brief on Migration and Urbanization. Ministry of Labour, Immigration and Population and UNFPA.

Department of Urban and Housing Development. 2018. National Urban Policy Framework . Ministry of Construction and UN Habitat .

Desiderio, Louella. 2019. “CEZA secures $3.9 B investment pledges from China firms.” Philstar Global, May 1. https://www.philstar.com/business/2019/05/01/1913898/ceza-secures-39-b-investment-pledges-china-firms.

Dobermann, Tim. 2016. "Urban Myanmar: Policy Note." International Growth Center.

Han, Naw Betty. 2019. “Shwe Kokko: A paradise for Chinese investment.” Frontier Myanmar, September 5. https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/shwe-kokko-a-paradise-for-chinese-investment.

Heeckt, Catarina, David Ney, Nuttavikhom Phanthuwongpakdee, and Marion Sabrié. 2017. Towards Urban Growth Analytics for Yangon: A comparative information base for strategic spatial development. London: International Growth Centre, London School of Economics and Political Science.

Hongtong, Thodsapol. 2019.” Thai-Myanmar pact to boost cross-border transport.” Bangkok Post, June 1. https://www.bangkokpost.com/business/1687344/thai-myanmar-pact-to-boost-cross-border-transport.

Htwe, Zaw Zaw. 2020. Quarter of a Million Myanmar Workers Left Jobless Due to COVID-19. The Irrawaddy, June 26. Accessed December 28, 2020. https://www.irrawaddy.com/news/burma/quarter-million-myanmar-workers-left-jobless-due-covid-19.html.

Khaing, Thin Thin. 2015. "Urbanization: The Structures of Sustainable Urban Landscape of Myanmar." International Conference on Burma/Myanmar Studies. Chiang Mai University: Chiang Mai University.

Ledent, Jacques. 1982. "Rural-Urban Migration, Urbanization, and Economic Development." Economic Development and Cultural Change 30(3): 507-538.

Lintner, Bertil. 2019. “Chinese company to build new city by Yangon.” Asia Times, March 5. Accessed December 28, 2020. https://www.asiatimes.com/2019/03/article/chinese-company-to-build-new-city-by-yangon/.

Myint, Aye Aye. 2018. National Spatial Development Framework and Urban Planning System of Myanmar. Spatial Planning Platform (SPP) Meeting. Fukuoka: Department of Urban and Housing Development.

Myint, Sithu Aung. 2019. “Yangon’s ‘new city’ plan raises a billion-dollar question.” Frontier Myanmar, March 8. Accessed December 28, 2020. https://frontiermyanmar.net/en/yangons-new-city-plan-raises-a-billion-dollar-question.

Myint, Yee Ywal. 2019. “Yangon’s new city to start bidding process.” Myanmar Times, January 25. Accessed December 28, 2020. https://www.mmtimes.com/news/yangons-new-city-start-bidding-process.html.

“One Belt, One Road: Moving Faster Than Expected.” 2017. DBS Vickers, September 27.

“Poor and homeless in costly Yangon.” 2013. The Straits Times, September 13. https://www.asiaone.com/asia/ poor-and-homeless-costly-yangon.

Roberts, Jayde Lin. 2018. "Urban." In Routledge handbook of contemporary Myanmar, edited by Nicholas Farrelly, Adam Simpson and Ian Holliday, 64-71. New York: Routledge.

Thiha, Aung. 2019. “Hanthawaddy International Airport Project to Begin Next Year.” The Irrawaddy, July 11. Accessed December 28, 2020. https://www.irrawaddy.com/business/hanthawaddy-international-airport-project-begin-next-year.html.

UNFPA. 2017. Thematic Report on Migration and Urbanization. UNFPA.

UNHabitat. 2016. National Habitat Report: The Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Quito, Ecuador: UNHabitat.

World Bank. 2015. Myanmar: Urbanization at an Early but Growing Stage. January 26. Accessed December 28, 2020.
https://www.worldbank.org/en/news/feature/2015/01/26/myanmar-urbanization-at-an-early-but-growing-stage.

World Bank. 2019. Myanmar's Urbanization: Creating Opportunities for All. Washington, D.C.: World Bank Group.