The Causal Relationships of Human Resource Development, Competitive Advantage and Business Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand


  • Apiradee Khamlai Faculty of Management Science, Loei Rajabhat University
  • Mongkol Ekkaphan Faculty of Business Administration and Accounting, Roi Et Rajabhat University



Human Resource Development, Competitive Advantage, Business Success


The objectives of this research were to study 1) the influence of human resource development and competitive advantage on business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. 2) the competitive advantage as the mediator between human resource development and business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. 3) to examine the consistency of the relationship model developed with an empirical data. The sample were 165 firms chosen by stratified random sampling. A questionnaire was used as the instrument. Statistics were frequency, percentages, mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis, correlation coefficient, and path analysis were used to find out causal relationship with structural equation models (SEM).

The results showed that the measurement model was valid and well fitted to the empirical data with x2/df=1.258, p-value=0.104, GFI=0.944, CFI=0.987, NFI=0.942, IFI=0.988, AGFI=0.912, RMSEA=0.04.In addition, the findings revealed that human resource development and competitive advantage have a positive effected on business success. On the other hand, Human resource development has a positive effected on competitive advantage.The results also shown that the competitive advantage had a mediating effect on the relationship between human resource development and business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand.


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How to Cite

Khamlai, A., & Ekkaphan, M. (2024). The Causal Relationships of Human Resource Development, Competitive Advantage and Business Success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Economics and Business Administration Journal Thaksin University, 16(2), 45–64.



Research Article