Main Article Content
This research serves as a preliminary analysis of the language situation of Tindal, a Dusunic language spoken in Kampung Ratau, Kota Belud, Sabah, Malaysia. For the past several years, it has been observed that the use of the mother tongue of the community, Tindal, has steadily declined while the domain of Bahasa Malaysia (BM), the national language, has increasingly widened. A survey was administered to selected residents of Kampung Ratau to determine language use and their perception of the economic and social functionality of Tindal and Bahasa Malaysia. The results indicate that there is indeed a language shift between the older and younger residents of Kampung Ratau with the older ones predominantly using Tindal while the younger ones primarily use Bahasa Malaysia in their daily communication. Overall, the respondents think Tindal is an important cultural marker to preserve their identity, both in the present and for the future. They agree that the continuous use of Tindal will ensure the longevity of the language. Though the speakers of Tindal do acknowledge the vital role they play in preserving this minority language, they are also aware that a proficient grasp of Malay is necessary. Most respondents view BM as important since it is the accepted medium which allows them to fully function socially and economically. The dilemma for the residents of Kampung Ratau is that they are being torn between preserving Tindal, their mother tongue, and subordinating it to the more dominant Bahasa Malaysia, the national language. This, unfortunately, is a shared concern affecting many other minor ethnic language communities in Malaysia.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright: Asia-Pacific International University reserve exclusive rights to publish, reproduce and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein.
Anonby, S.J. 1999 Reversing language shift: Can Kwak’wala be revived? In J. Reyhner, G. Cantoni, R. N. St. Clair & E. P. Yazzie (Eds.), Revitalizing indigenous languages (pp. 35-52). Flagstaff, AZ: Northern Arizona University. Retrieved May 31, 2009 from http://jan.ucc.nau.edu/~jar/RIL_4.html
Borbely, A. 2000 The process and the factors of language shift and maintenance: a sociolinguistic research in the Romanian minority in Hungary. Retrieved May 7, 2009 from http://rss.archives.ceu.hu/ archive/00001138/01/146.pdf
Crawford, J. 1996 Seven hypotheses on language loss causes and cures. Unpublished manuscript. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED395 731). Retrieved May 24, 2009 from http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICDocs/ data/ericdocs2sql/content_storage_01/0000019b/80/14/89/f8.pdf
David, M. K. 2003 Reasons for language shift in peninsular Malaysia [Electronic version]. Investing in innovation, 7, 111 – 114. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://eprints.um.edu.my/789/1/111-114_%287-28%29.pdf
2008 Language choice of urban sino-Indians in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia [Electronic version]. Migracijske i etničke teme, 3, 217–233. Retrieved April 20, 2010, from http://www.google.co.th/url?sa=t&sourc e=web&cd=1&ved=0CBUQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fhrcak.srce.hr%2Ffile%2F48622&rct=j&q=%20 Language%20choice%20of%20urban%20sino-indians%20in%20Kuala%20Lumpur%2C%20 Malaysia.%20%20&ei=OlxSTLWxPNC_rAeH05jeAQ&usg=AFQjCNEKMBo1RtcOI0Bz4LhcmXo4Gl4Ufg
David, M.K. & Dealwis, C. 2008 Why shift? Focus on Sabah and Sarawak. Suvremena Linguistika, 34(66), 261-276. (Non-ISI/Non-SCOPUS Cited Publication). Retrieved 30 August 2011 from http://hrcak.srce.hr/index.php?show=clanak&id_ clanak_jezik=48371
Fishman, J. A. 1991 The intergenerational transmission of ‘additional’ languages’ for special purposes. In Reversing language shift (pp. 355-367). UK: Multilingual Matters Ltd.
Ghani, B. A. A. & Ridzuan, A. A. 1992 Language shift among orang Miriek of Miri, Sarawak. In P. W. Martin (Ed.), Papers from the second bi-ennial international conference: Vol. 3. Shifting patterns of language use in Borneo (pp. 131-146). Virginia, USA: The Borneo Research Council, Inc.
Holmes, Janet. 2008 An introduction to sociolinguistics (3rd ed.). Malaysia: Pearson Education Limited.
Kershaw, E. M. 1992 Final shifts: some why’s and how’s of Brunei-Dusun convergence on Malay. In P. W. Martin (Ed.), Papers from the second bi-ennial international conference: Vol. 3. Shifting patterns of language use in Borneo (pp. 179-194). Virginia, USA: The Borneo Research Council, Inc.
Lasimbang, R. 1994 Cherish your language through knowing your language. Paper presented at the seminar “Embrace your culture, cherish your language for excellence and unity” in conjunction with Kadazandusun Language Week 1996, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. November 4.
1997 Situatsi bahasa Kadazandusun masa kini [The Kadazandusun language situation]. Paper presented at the Seminar Pendidik Kadazandusun [Seminar for Kadazandusun Educators], Donggongon, Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia. July.
Lasimbang, R. & Kinajil, T. 2000 Changing the language ecology of Kadazandusun: the role of the Kadazandusun Language Foundation. Multilingual Matters.net 1(3). Retrieved February 25, 2008, from http://www.multilingual- matters. net/cilp/001/0415/cilp0010415.pdf
Lee, S. 2008 A study of language choice and language shift among the Hakka-speaking population in Hong Kong, with a primary focus on Sha Tau Fok. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, City University of Hong Kong. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://lbms03.cityu.edu.hk/theses/abt/phd-en-b23407797a.pdf
Lewis, M. P. (Ed.). 2009 Ethnologue: Languages of the world (16th ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved April 20, 2010 from http://www.ethnologue.com/
Mackey, W. F. 1980 The ecology of language shift. In A. Fill & P. Mulhausler (Eds.), The ecolinguistic reader: Language, ecology and environment. London: Continuum.
Martin, P. 2005 Language shift and code-mixing: a case study from Northern Borneo. Australian journal of linguistics, 25(1), 109 – 125.
Martin, P. W. & Yen, E. 1992 Language use among the Kelabit living in urban centers. In P. W. Martin (Ed.), Papers from the second bi-ennial international conference: Vol. 3. Shifting patterns of language use in Borneo (pp. 147-164). USA: The Borneo Research Council, Inc.
Moelleken, W. W. 1983 Language maintenance and language shift in Pennsylvania German: A comparative investigation. Monastshefte. 75(2), 172-186.
Morita, L. C. 2007 A historical study of the factors contributing to language shift among the Thai Chinese. In S. Iwasaki, et al. (Ed)., SEALSXIII: papers from the 13th meeting of the Southeast Asian Linguistics Society, 2003. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, 147 – 155. Retrieved 1 April, 2010 from http://sealang. net/sala/archives/pdf8/morita2007historical.pdf
Omar, Asmah H. 1985 The language policy of Malaysia: a formula for balanced pluralism. In D. Bradley (Ed)., Papers in South-East Asian linguistics No.9: language policy, language planning and sociolinguistics in SouthEast Asia, 39-49. Pacific Linguistics, the Australian National University.
Robinson, L. C. 2006 Vowel harmony in Borneo? An examination of vowel changes in Tindal Dusun. Paper presented at Tenth International Conference on Austronesian Linguistics. 17-20 January 2006. Puerto Princesa City, Palawan, Philippines. Retrieved April 19, 2010 from http://www.sil.org/asia/philippines/ical/ papers/robinson-vowel%20harmony%20in%20borneo.pdf
Ting, S. H. 2003 Impact of language planning on language attitudes: A case study in Sarawak. Journal of multilingual and multicultural development, 24(3), 195 – 210.
Trudgill, P. 2000 Sociolinguistics: An introduction to language and society (4th ed.). England: Penguin Books.
Wong, Y. L. & James, J. E. 2000 Malaysia. In Y. L. Wong & J. E. James (Eds.), Language policies and language education: the impact in East Asian countries in the next decade (pp 209-240). Singapore: Times Academic Press.