The Roles of Output in Second Language Acquisition A Case Study of Thai Learners

Main Article Content

Pragasit Sitthitikul


A debate in second language acquisition research is whether noticing plays a positive role in the acquisition of the second language (L2). Some researchers have argued that enhanced input, output, negotiation, and attention to form have positive effects while others are doubtful about such claims. In this small-scale investigation, the potentially facilitative effects of output on the acquisition of the English passive form by Thai English language learners was examined. Specifically, this inquiry addresses: (a) whether output promotes noticing of an L2 grammatical form, (b) the relationship between noticing and subsequent production. Two groups of 20 Thai English language learners were placed in an output group and a non-output group, where they read two expository texts which focused predominantly on the choice of passive forms. The output group reconstructed a text after the first reading to provide opportunities for noticing through output, before they wrote a recall summary after reading the second text. The non-output group answered extended questions after the first reading, and wrote a recall summary after reading the second text. The results suggested that the two groups were not different in performance on recall summary, as well as in terms of the level of noticing and accuracy.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


Curran, T., Keele, S. W. (1993). Attentional and nonattentional forms of sequence learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19, 189-202.

Ellis, R. (1994). The study of second language acquisition. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Izumi, S. & Lakshmanan, U. (1998). Learnability, negative evidence and the L2 acquisition of the English passive. Second Language Research, 14(1), 62-101.

Izumi, S. (1994). Tutoring report on the acquisition of the English passive by a native speaker of Japanese. Unpublished manuscript, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale.

Izumi, S. (2000). Promoting noticing and SLA: An empirical study of the effects of output and input enhancement on ESL relativization. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Georgetown University, Washington, DC.

Izumi, S. (2002). Output, input enhancement, and the noticing hypothesis: An experimental study on ESL relativization. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 24(4), 541-577.

Izumi, S., & Bigelow, M. (2000). Does output promote noticing and second language acquisition? TESOL Quarterly, 34(2), 239-278.

Jetton, T. L., Alexander, P. A., (1997). Instructional importance: What teachers value and what students learn. Reading Research Quarterly, 32 (3), 290-308.

Kellerman, E. (1991). Compensatory strategies in second language research: A critique, a revision, and some (non)-implications for the classroom. In R. Philipson, E. Kellerman, L. Selinker, M. Sharwood Smith, and M. Swain (Eds.), Foreign/Second Language Pedagogy Research. Clevedon, Avon: Multilingual Matters.

Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issues and implications. New York: Longman.

Leow, R. P. (1995). Modality and intake in second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 17(1), 79-89.

Leow, R. P. (2000). A study of the role of awareness in foreign language behavior: Aware versus unaware learners. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 22(4), 557-584.

Levelt, W. J. M. (1989). Speaking from intention to articulation. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Long, M., & Robinson, P. (1998). Focus on form: Theory, research, and practice. In C. Doughty & J. Williams (Eds.), Focus on form in classroom second language acquisition (pp.15-41), New York: Cambridge University Press.

Marcel, A. J. (1983). Conscious and unconscious perception: Experiments on visual masking and word recognition. Cognitive Psychology, 15, 197-237.

Nobuyoshi, J. & Ellis, R. (1993). Focused communication tasks and second language acquisition. ELT Journal, 47(3), 203-210.

Pica, T. (1987). Second language acquisition, social interaction, and the classroom. Applied Linguistics, 7, 1-25.

Philp, J. (1998). Interaction, noticing, and second language acquisition: An examination of learners’ noticing of recasts in task-based interaction. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Tasmania, Australia.

Posner, M., & Peterson, S. (1990). The attention system of the human brain. Annual Review of Neuroscience, 13, 25-42.

Robinson, P. (1995). Attention, memory, and the noticing hypothesis. Language Learning, 45, 283-331.

Rutherford, W. E. (1987). Second language grammar: learning and teaching. London: Longman.

Schacter, D. L. (1992). Consciousness and awareness in memory and amnesia: Critical issues. In A. D. Milner & M. D. Rugg (Eds.), Foundations of neuropsychology series (pp. 180-200). New York: Academic Press.

Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11, 206-226.

Schmidt, R. (1995). Consciousness and foreign language learning: A tutorial on the role of attention and awareness in learning. In R. Schmidt (Ed.), Attention and awareness in foreign language learning (pp. 1-63). Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press.

Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3-32). New York: Cambridge University Press.

Schmidt, R. and Frota, S. N. (1986). Developing basic conversational ability in a second language: A case study of an adult learner of Portuguese. In R. Day (Ed.), Talking to learn: Conversation in second language acquisition. Rowley, MA: Newbury.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1981). Consciousness-raising and the second language learner. Applied Linguistics, 2, 159-168.

Sharwood Smith, M. (1991). Speaking to many minds: On the relevance of different types of language information for the L2 learner. Second Language Research, 7, 118-132.

Silver, R. (2000). Input, output and negotiation: Conditions for second language development. In B. Swierzbin, F. Morris, M. Anderson, C. Klee, & E. Tarone (Eds.), Social and cognitive factors in second language acquisition: Selected proceedings of the 1999 Second Language Research Forum (pp. 345-371). Somerville, MA: Casadilla.

Swain, M. (1985). Communicative competence: Some roles of comprehensible input and comprehensible output in its environment. In S. Gash & C. Madden (Eds.), Input in second language acquisition (pp. 235-253). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.

Swain, M. & Lapkin, S. (1995). Problems in output and the cognitive processes they generate: A step towards second language learning, Applied Linguistics, 16, 371-391.

Tomlin, R. S., & Villa, V. (1994). Attention in cognitive science and second language acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 16, 183-203.

Velmans, M. (1991). Is human information processing conscious? Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 14, 651-669.

Wegman, B. (1996). Mosaic one: A content-based reading book. New York: McGraw-Hill.