A Study of Environmental Hazards Causing Unintentional Injuries in Bangkok Metropolitan Area Day Care Centers

Main Article Content

Jirawan Klommek
Chayaporn Tiwaree
Jarurat Sriratanaprapat
Naree Yanissorn


The purpose of this research was to study environmental hazards causing unintentional injuries in Bangkok day care centers. Most such studies among preschoolers have shown a correlation with environmental hazards. The sample group consisted of 45 day care center teachers and volunteer babysitters. Interviewer-completed questionnaires were used to gather information from respondents, and day care centers were naturalistically observed in accordance with an Environmental Hazards Survey. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistical analysis. Results revealed that most environmental hazards were sharp or square-edged objects. Poisoning was caused by poisonous substances or medicines lying on the floor or on objects located less than 1 meter from it. Burns/scalding were produced by electrical appliances or stoves located less than 1 meter from the floor. Slips/falls were because of furniture, televisions, or other objects which children could pull or climb on. Moreover, drowning was a result of water containers inside day care centers. Lastly, hazardous stairways were those with steps wider than 15 centimeters. Findings suggest that health care providers should educate teachers or volunteer babysitters at day care centers by using guidelines from an environmental hazards survey to create a safe environment for protecting against unintentional injuries.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles


Ahmed, B., Fatmi, Z., Siddiqui, A. R., & Sheikh, A. L. (2011). Predictors of unintentional poisoning among children under 5 years of age in Karachi: a matched case-control study. Inj Pre, 17(1), 2732. Retrieved from https://doi:10.1136/ip.2010.027524.

Atak, N., Karaoğlu, L., Korkmaz, Y., & Usubütün, S. (2010). A household survey: unintentional injury frequency and related factors among children under five years in Malatya. The Turkish Journal of Pediatrics, 52(3), 285-293.

Caeiro Ramos, A. L., & Mateus Nunes, L. R. (2014). The child in a domestic/family environment: consensus on risk factors for unintentional injuries. Revista De Enfermagem Referência, 4(1), 4554. Retrieved from https://doi:10.12707/RIII11299.

Child Trends Databank. (2014). Unintentional injuries indicators on children and youth. Retrieved from https://www.childtrends.org/indicators/unintentional-injuries/

Drago, D. A. (2005). Kitchen scalds and thermal burns in children five years and younger. Pediatrics, 115(1), 10-16.

Garzon, D. L. (2005). Contributing factors to preschool unintentional injury. Journal of Pediatric Nursing, 20(6), 441-447.

Health Promotion Division, Health Department, Ministry of Public Health. (2013). Manual of standards for day care centers (1st ed.).

Hockenberry, M. J., & Wilson, D. (2013). Wong’s essentials of pediatric nursing (9th ed.). St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier.

Holder, Y., Matzopoulos, R., & Smith, N. (2008). Poisons. In M. Peden, K. Oyegbite, J. Ozanne-Smith, A. A. Hyder, C. Branche, AKH. F. Rahman, K., K. Bartolomeos (Eds.), World Report on Child Injury Prevention (pp. 1-30). Geneva: WHO Press.

Intraratsamee, J. (2014). A model of management to reduce the incident accident in day care centers, local government organizations. (Doctoral Dissertation). Khon Kaen University, Community Health Development.

Kamal, N. N. (2013). Home unintentional non-fatal injury among children under 5 years of age in a rural area, El Minia Governorate, Egypt. Journal of Community Health, 38(5), 873-879. Retrieved from https://doi:10.1007/s10900-013-9692-y.

Klommek, J., Chaimongkol, N., Flick, H. L., Deenan, A., & Wongnum, P. (2015). Predictors of unintentional home injury in toddlers: An empirical test of a causal model. Pacific Rim International Journal of Nursing Research, 19(4), 345-357.

LeBlanc, J. C., Pless, I. B., King, W. J., Bawden, H., Bernard-Bonnin. A-C., Klassen, T., & Tenenbein, M. (2006). Home safety measures and the risk of unintentional injury among young children: a multicentre case-control study. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 175(8), 883-887.

Ministry of Social Development and Human Security. (2006). Ministerial regulations regarding guidelines, procedures and conditions for granting child daycare licenses.]. Retrieved from http://www.navy.mi.th/nursery/ pdf/boy_law.pdf.

Ministry of Social Development and Human Security. (2012). [National Child Care Center Standards: A Manual for Operations.

National Institute for Emergency Medicine. (2015). Thai Emergency Medical Services Information: Child Sickness Statistics in 2014. Retrieved from http://www.thaiemsinfo.com/autopagev4show_ page.php?topic_id= 517& auto_id=9&TopicPk=.

Phelan, K. J., Khoury, J., Xu, Y., Liddy, S., Hornung, R., & Lanphear, B. P. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of home injury hazard reduction. Archives of Pediatric & Adolescent Medicine, 165(4), 339345.

Plitponkarnpim, A., & Chinapa, M. (2014). Trend of child injury and drowning in Thailand, and child safety promotion initiative. Southeast Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine and Public Health, 45 (Suppl 1), 50-52.

Policy and Planning Division, City Planning Department, Bangkok Metropolitan. (2007). Preschool Day care centers in Bangkok Metropolitan Area.

Puckett, M. B., & Black, J. K. (2005). The young child: Development from prebirth through age eight (4th ed). New Jersey: Pearson Merrill Prentice Hall.

Qiu, X., Wacharasin, C., Deoisres, W., Yu, J., & Zheng, Q. (2014). Characteristics and predictors of home injury hazards among toddlers in Wenzhou, China: a community-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. Jun 23; 14-638. Retrieved from http:// doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-14-638.

Rajanukul Institute of Department of Mental Health. (2015). Danger from small toys being placed in children’s mouths. Retrieved from http://www.rajanukul.go.th/new/index.php?mode=Main content&group=225&id=254&date_start=&date_end=.

Simpson, J. C., & Nicholls, J. (2012). Preventing unintentional childhood injury at home: injury circumstances and interventions. International Journal of Injury Control & Safety Promotion, 19(2), 141-151. Retrieved from http://doi:10.1080/17457300.2011.635208.

Siriboonpipatana, P. (Ed). (2012). Child Nursing Volume No. 3 (Rev. ed). Bangkok: Thanaplace Co., Ltd.

Sirisamutr, T. (2008). Prevalence and risk factors of unintentional home injury in preschool children, Roiet province. Master’s thesis, Mahidol University, Department of Public Health, Faculty of Graduate Studies.

Sitthi-amorn, C., Chaipayom, O., Udomprasertgul, V., Linnan, M., Dunn, T., Beck, L., Cardenas, V., Irvine, K., Forsgate, D., & Cox, R. (2006). Child injury in Thailand: a report on the Thai national injury survey. Bangkok: Chulalongkorn University.

Sri-ard, B. (2010). Fundamentals of research (8th ed). Bangkok: Suveriyasarn.

Theurer, W. M., & Bhavsar, A. K. (2013). Prevention of unintentional childhood injury. American Family Physician, 87(7), 502-509.

Towner, E., & Scott, I (2008). Child injuries in context. In M. Peden, K. Oyegbite, J. Ozanne-Smith, A. A. Hyder, C. Branche, AKH. F. Rahman, F. Rivara, & K. Bartolomeos (Eds.), World Report on Child Injury Prevention (pp. 1-30). Geneva: WHO Press.

UNICEF unite for children Thailand. (2011). An analysis of the situation of children and women. Retrieved from https://www.unicef.org/thailand/ 1045_UNICEF_Final_row_res_230911.pdf.

Uppala, R. (2014). Foreign body aspiration in children. KUU Research Journal 19(6), 950-56. Retrieved from http://www.resjournal.kku.ac.th/abstract/19_6_17.pdf.