Maternity Leave Policy for Woman Workforces in Thailand's Formal Sector

Main Article Content

Satayu Pattarakijkusol

Abstract

Thailand's total fertility rate has been below the replacement level since the 1990s. The Thai womens’ workforce, in the formal sectors, faces challenges finding a balance between employment and bearing children. Employers also tend to have unfavorable attitudes toward women who have children, because this affects them financially. The maternity leave policy remains ineffective, which results in the total fertility rate continuing to decline. Policymakers might consider also giving parental leave to the fathers of newborn babies. Maternity leave should be divided into three parts: pre-natal, maternity, and post-maternity leave, during which time women should still continue to be paid so that the expenses of rearing children can be offset. In addition, breastfeeding facilities should be introduced at workplaces to facilitiate women’s ability to rear their children at work. Finally, having children should not serve as an obstacle to women’s career progression. 

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Academic Articles

References

Akhtar, T., & Khan, M. A. (2020). Pregnancy and maternity at workplace, a qualitative study to know the employers' perspective. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences, 9(9), 619–624. https://doi.org/ 10.14260/jemds/2020/137

Barbos, A., & Milovanska-Farrington, S. (2019). The effect of maternity leave expansions on fertility intentions: Evidence from Switzerland. Journal of Family and Economic Issues, 40(3), 323–337. https://doi.org/10.1007/ s10834-019-09609-3

Bassford, M., & Fisher, H. (2020). The impact of paid parental leave on fertility intentions. Economic Record, 96(315), 402–430. https://doi.org/10.1111/1475-4932.12561

Billingsley, S., & Ferrarini, T. (2014). Family policy and fertility intentions in 21 European countries. Journal of Marriage and Family, 76(2), 428–445. https://doi.org/10.1111/jomf.12097

Brewster, K. L., & Rindfuss, R. R. (2000). Fertility and women's employment in industrialized nations. Annual Review of Sociology, 26(1), 271–296. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.soc.26.1.271

Buddhari, A., & Rugpenthum, P. (2019). A better understanding of Thailand's informal sector. Focus and Quick (FAQ), (156). https://www.bot.or.th/Thai/MonetaryPolicy/ArticleAndResearch/FAQ/FAQ_156.pdf

Davia, M. A., & Legazpe, N. (2014). The role of education in fertility and female employment in Spain: A simultaneous approach. Journal of Family Issues, 35(14), 1898–1925. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X13490932

Digital Government Development Agency. (2017). Čhamnūan prachākō̜n ʻāyu siphā pī khưn pai čhamnǣk tām sathānaphāp somrot sathānaphāp rǣngngān thūa rātchaʻānāčhak trai māt thī nưng Phō̜.Sō̜. sō̜ngphanhārō̜ihoksip [Number of people above 15 years of age divided into marital status and employment status all over Thailand in the first quarter B.E. 2560]. https://data.go.th/en/dataset/item_b5b6c7c1-a52d-41de-a901-38ff45a1071d

Eguchi, H., Shimazu, A., Fujiwara, T., Iwata, N., Shimada, K., Takahashi, M., Tokita, M., Watai, I., & Kawakami, N. (2016). The effects of workplace psychosocial factors on whether Japanese dual-earner couples with preschool children have additional children: A prospective study. Industrial Health, 54(6), 498–504. https://doi.org/ 10.2486/indhealth.2016-0080

Fehr, H., & Ujhelyiova, D. (2013). Fertility, female labor supply, and family policy. German Economic Review, 14(2), 138–165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0475.2012.00568.x

Feng, W., & Andrew, M. (2008). The demographic factor in China's transition. In L. Brandt & T. G. Rawski (Eds.), China's great economic transformation (pp. 136–166). Cambridge University Press.

Friedman, D., Hechter, M., & Kanazawa, S. (1994). A theory of the value of children. Demography, 31(3), 375–401. https://doi.org/10.2307/2061749

Hakim, C. (2003). A new approach to explaining fertility patterns: Preference theory. Population and Development Review, 29(3), 349–374. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2003.00349.x

Hayford, S. R. (2009). The evolution of fertility expectations over the life course. Demography, 46(4), 765–783. https://doi.org/10.1353/dem.0.0073

Heaton, T. B., Jacobson, C. K., & Holland, K. (1999). Persistence and change in decisions to remain childless. Journal of Marriage and Family, 61(2), 531–539. https://doi.org/10.2307/353767

Heiland, F., Prskawetz, A., & Sanderson, W. C. (2008). Are individuals’ desired family sizes stable? Evidence from west German panel data. European Journal of Population/Revue européenne de Démographie, 24(2), 129–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10680-008-9162-x

International Labour Organization. (2013). Thailand: A labour market profile. Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific.

Kaewbuadee, N. & Pothisiri, W. (2019). Delaying age at first birth of ever-married women in Thailand: Situation, trend, and determinants. Srinakharinwirot Research and Development (Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences). 11(22), 57–74. https://so04.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/swurd/article/view/240643/163874

Kajimura, M. (2020, July). Changes in the demographic structure and economic growth in East and Southeast Asia. ISEAS Yusof Ishak Institute. http://hdl.handle.net/11540/12284

Lacovou. M., & Tavares, L. P. (2011). Yearning, learning and conceding: The reasons people change their childbearing intentions. Population and Development Review, 37(1), 89–123. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1728-4457.2011.00391.x

Lundquist, J. H., Anderton, D. L., & Yaukey, D. (2015). Demography : The study of human population (4th ed.). St. Martin's Press.

Luo, H., & Mao, Z. (2014). From fertility intention to fertility behaviour. Asian Population Studies, 10(2), 195–207. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441730.2014.902162

McQuillan, J., Greil, A. L., Shreffler, K. M., & Bedrous, A. V. (2015). The importance of motherhood and fertility intentions among U.S. women. Sociological Perspectives, 58(1), 20–35. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 0731121414534393

Mills, M., Begall, K., Mencarini, L., & Tanturri, M. L. (2008). Gender equity and fertility intentions in Italy and the Netherlands. Demographic Research, 18(1), 1–26. https://doi.org/10.4054/DemRes.2008.18.1

National Statistical Office. (2006). The labor force survey whole Kingdom quarter 1: January-March 2006 (Report No. 117). http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014en/Survey/social/labour/LaborForce/2006/q1/6.%20Full%20Report.pdf

National Statistical Office. (2010). The labor force survey whole Kingdom quarter 1: January-March 2010(Report No. 133). http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014en/Survey/social/labour/LaborForce/2010/q1/6.%20Full%20Report.pdf

National Statistical Office. (2020). The labor force survey whole Kingdom quarter 4: October-December 2020 (Report No. 95). http://www.nso.go.th/sites/2014en/Survey/social/labour/LaborForce/2020/province_Q4_63.pdf

Park, S. M., & Cho, S. I. (2011). Factors associated with second childbirth intention: Focusing on value of children in Korean married women. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 29(3), 292–304. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/02646838.2011.593031

Park, S.-M., Cho, S.-I., & Choi, M.-K. (2010). The effect of paternal investment on female fertility intention in South Korea. Evolution and Human Behavior, 31(6), 447–452. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2010.07.001

Pattarakijkusol, S., & NaRanong, A. (2020). Study on factors relating to policies to support pregnancy and middle-income Generation-Y women's decisions to have children in Bangkok and its vicinities. Thai Journal of Public Administration, 18(2), 1–25.

Raymo, J. M., & Shibata, A. (2017). Unemployment, nonstandard employment, and fertility: Insights from Japan's "lost 20 years". Demography, 54(6), 2301–2329. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-017-0614-y

Royal Thai Government Gazette. (1998). Labour protection act B.E. 2541 (Vol. 115). https://www.ilo.org/dyn/ natlex/docs/ELECTRONIC/49727/125954/F-1924487677/THA49727%20Eng.pdf

Royal Thai Government Gazette. (2013). Regulations of the office of the prime minister on government officer leave B.E. 2555 (Vol. 129). http://personal.sru.ac.th/2016/08/17/%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B0%E0%B9%80%E0%B8% 9A%E0%B8%B5%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%9A%E0%B8%AA%E0%B8%B3%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%B2%E0%B8%A2%E0%B8%81%E0%B8%A3%E0%B8%B1%E0%B8%90%E0%B8%A1%E0%B8%99%E0%B8%95/

Ruhm, C. J. (1998). The economic consequences of parental leave mandates: Lessons from Europe. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, 113(1), 285–317. https://www.jstor.org/stable/2586992+

Sasiwonsaroj, K., Husa, K., & Wohlschlägl, H. (2020). Fertility decline and the role of culture – Thailand’s demographic challenges for the 21st Ccentury. In S. Kurfürst & S. Wehner (Eds.), Southeast Asian transformations (pp. 125–151). Transcript-Verlag.

Scanzoni, J. (1975). Sex roles, life styles, and childbearing: Changing patterns in marriage and the family. Free Press.

Schoen, R., Astone, N. M., Kim, Y. J., Nathanson, C. A., & Fields, J. M. (1999). Do fertility intentions affect fertility behavior? Journal of Marriage and Family, 61(3), 790–799. https://doi.org/10.2307/353578

Shoichiro, T. (1997). Family, community, and modernization in Asian societies: Japan, Vietnam, and Thailand. Asian-Pacific Center.

Snopkowski, K., & Sear, R. (2013). Kin influences on fertility in Thailand: Effects and mechanisms. Evolution and Human Behavior, 34(2), 130–138. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2012.11.004

Soriano, G. (1991). The changing role of the family as a social institution in development in the Asia-Pacific region. United Nations.

Stevenson, A. (2012). The labor supply and tax revenue consequences of federal same-sex marriage legalization. National Tax Journal, 65(4), 783–806. https://doi.org/10.17310/ntj.2012.4.03

United Nations. (2017). World population prospects 2017. https://population.un.org/wpp/Publications/Files/ WPP2017_DataBooklet.pdf

United Nations. (2020). World fertility and family planning 2020: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/440). https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/publications/pdf/family/World_Fertility_and_Family_Planning_2020_Highlights.pdf

Van den Broeck, G., & Maertens, M. (2015). Female employment reduces fertility in rural Senegal. PLoS ONE, 10(3), e0122086. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0122086

Wongboonsin, K., Guest, P., & Prachuabmoh, V. (2005). Demographic change and the demographic dividend in Thailand. Asian Population Studies, 1(2), 245–256. https://doi:10.1080/17441730500317493

World Bank. (2018). Fertility rate, total (births per woman) - Thailand. https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/ SP.DYN.TFRT.IN?locations=TH&name_desc=true

Xiaodong, W. (2019, March 22). Birthrates across country down last year. China Daily. http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201903/22/WS5c942802a3104842260b1e51.html

Yimyam, S., Thapphansan, P., & Chumphan, S. (2012). Kānphatthanā rūpbǣp kān sanapsanun kānlīang but dūai nom māndā nai sathānprakō̜pkān [The development of a breastfeeding support model in the workplace]. Journal Thailand Nursing and Midwifery Council, 27(2), 122–133. https://he02.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/ TJONC/article/view/5380/4724