Expansion and Speculation of the Creation Theme in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha

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Gerard Bernard


In this study the theme of creation in the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha is explored. From the Apocrypha, the study focuses on selected creation references from the Wisdom of Ben Sira, Baruch, the Wisdom of Solomon, and the Prayer of Manasseh. From the Pseudepigrapha, creation references are selected from the Book of Jubilees, the Book of the Secrets of Enoch (2 Enoch), and the Apocalypse of Ezra (4 Ezra). Even though in most cases both the Apocrypha and Pseudepigrapha generally follow many of the Old Testament creation traditions, they also interpret the creation account of Genesis 1–2 through the lens of other creation passages in the Old Testament. As a result, they modify and expand certain creation images and ideas. Moreover, they also have the tendency to speculate. The speculation involves, in most cases, adding details to the creation narrative of Genesis 1–2 so as to clarify what is not mentioned in the narrative.


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