How The Perceived Threat of Covid-19 Aggravates Chinese Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention in Thailand: The Moderating Role of Affective Commitment

Authors

  • Xuemei Sun National Institute of Development Administration
  • Yi Ma Saint John's University

Keywords:

Covid-19, Affective Commitment, Turnover Intention, Emotional Exhaustion

Abstract

The Covid-19 pandemic has caused not only the loss of organizations but also adverse impacts on employees’ mental health that have led to unfavorable outcomes. Grounded in conservation of resource theory, this study presents a conceptual model and aims to explore the psychological and behavioral consequences to employees of the perceived threat of Covid-19, as well as exploring the moderating effect of affective commitment on those consequences. A convenience sampling method was used to collect survey data from 248 local hired Chinese employees currently working in Thailand. The results from PLS-SEM analysis significantly confirm that employees’ emotional exhaustion resulting from the pandemic can increase their turnover intention. In addition, the results from the moderating effect analysis found that affective commitment can lessen the adverse impact of emotional exhaustion on employees’ turnover intentions. Thus, the organizational management should concern themselves with employees’ psychological wellness during the pandemic, and make efforts to increase Chinese employees’ affective commitment to their organizations.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

References

Abdullah, A., & Ramay, I. (2012). Antecedents of organizational commitment of banking sector employees in Pakistan. Serbian Journal of Management, 7(1), 89-102.

Al-Gahtani, S. S., Hubona, G. S., & Wang, J. (2007). Information technology (IT) in Saudi Arabia: Culture and the acceptance and use of IT. Information & Management, 44(8), 681-691.

Al-Sinawi, S., Piaw, C. Y., & Idris, A. R. (2015). Factors influencing the employees’ service performance in ministry of education in sultanate of Oman. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 197, 23-30.

Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1990). The measurement and antecedents of affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization. Journal of Occupational Psychology 63(1), 1-18.

Bao, Y., Sun, Y., Meng, S., Shi, J., & Lu, L. (2020). 2019-nCoV epidemic: Address mental health care to empower society. Lancet (London, England), 395(10224), e37-e38. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30309-3

Buchanan, B. (1974). Building organizational commitment: The socialization of managers in work organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19(2), 533-546.

Caligiuri, P., De Cieri, H., Minbaeva, D., Verbeke, A., & Zimmermann, A. (2020). International HRM insights for navigating the COVID-19 pandemic: Implications for future research and practice. Journal of International Business Studies, 51(5), 697-713.

Cao, X., & Qu, J. J. (2014). Analysis of origins and main contents of conservation of resource theory and implications. Human Resources Development of China, 15, 75-80.

Charoensukmongko, P., & Phungsoonthorn, T. (2020). The effectiveness of supervisor support in lessening perceived uncertainties and emotional exhaustion of university employees during the COVID-19 crisis: The constraining role of organizational intransigence. The Journal of General Psychology, 1-20.

Chin, W. W., Marcolin, B. L., & Newsted, P. R. (2003). A partial least squares latent variable modeling approach for measuring interaction effects: Results from a Monte Carlo simulation study and an electronic-mail emotion/adoption study. Information Systems Research, 14(2), 189-217.

Cui, X., Zhang, Y., & Qu, J. (2012). Labor relations climate and job satisfaction: The moderating role of organizational commitment. Nankai Business Review, 15(2), 19-30.

De Cuyper, N., Mäkikangas, A., Kinnunen, U., Mauno, S., & Witte, H. D. (2012). Cross‐lagged associations between perceived external employability, job insecurity, and exhaustion: Testing gain and loss spirals according to the conservation of resources theory. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 33(6), 770-788.

Demerouti, E., & Bakker, A. B. (2011). The job demands-resources model: Challenges for future research. SA Journal of Industrial Psychology, 37(2), 1-9.

Dey, T., Kumar, A., & Kumar, Y. L. N. (2014). A new look at the antecedents and consequences of organizational commitment: A conceptual study. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 4(1), 281-287.

Emergency Operation Center. (2021). The coronavirus disease 2019 situation: Thailand situation update on 30 June 2021. Department of Disease Control. https://ddc.moph. go.th/viralpneumonia/eng/file/ situation/situation-no538-300664.pdf

Fazio, J., Gong, B., Sims, R., & Yurova, Y. (2017). The role of affective commitment in the relationship between social support and turnover intention. Management Decision, 55(3), 512-525.

Foreign Workers Administration. (2021). Record on the number of aliens with work permit throughout the Kingdom of Thailand, May 2564. https://www.doe.go.th/prd/assets/ upload/files/alien_th/b4d395 ff0f55dac76797e41520e0d1b5.pdf (in Thai)

Hair, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM, Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-52.

Hair, J., Risher, J., Sarstedt, M., & Ringle, C. (2019). When to use and how to report the results of PLS-SEM. European Business Review, 31(1), 2-24.

Hair, J. F., Sarstedt, M., Ringle, C. M., & Mena, J. A. (2012). An assessment of the use of partial least squares structural equation modeling in marketing research. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(3), 414-433.

Hamouche, S. (2020). COVID-19 and employees’ mental health: Stressors, moderators and agenda for organizational actions. Emerald Open Research, 2(15), 1-15.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2015). A new criterion for assessing discriminant validity in variance-based structural equation modeling. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 43(1), 115-135.

Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M. & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The use of partial leaste squares path modeling in international marketing (New Challenges to International Marketing ed. Vol. 20). In Advances in international marketing. Emerald group Publishing Limited.

Hills, M. E. (2019). Emotional exhaustion: Creation of a new measure and exploration of the construct. Oklahoma State University.

Hobfoll, S. E. (2011). Conservation of resource caravans and engaged settings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 84(1), 116–122.

Hobfoll, S. E., Halbesleben, J., Neveu, J.-P., & Westman, M. (2018). Conservation of resources in the organizational context: The reality of resources and their consequences. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior, 5(1), 103-128.

Hom, P. W., Lee, T. W., Shaw, J. D., & Hausknecht, J. P. (2017). One hundred years of employee turnover theory and research. Journal of Applied Psychology, 102(3), 530-545.

Irshad, M., Khattak, S. A., Hassan, M. M., Majeed, M., & Bashir, S. (2020). How perceived threat of Covid-19 causes turnover intention among Pakistani nurses: A moderation and mediation analysis. International Journal of Mental Health Nursing, 30(1), 1-10.

Israel, G. D. (1992). Determining sample size 1. University of Florida.

Labrague, L. J., & de los Santos, J. A. A. (2021). Fear of COVID-19, psychological distress, work satisfaction and turnover intention among frontline nurses. Journal of Nursing Management, 29(3), 395-403.

Lin, J., Yan, Y., Chen, S., & Luo, X. (2017). Understanding the impact of social commerce website technical features on repurchase intetnion: A Chinese guanxi perspective. Journal of Electronic Commerce Research, 18(3), 225-244.

Liu, W., Zhou, Z. E., & Che, X. X. (2019). Effect of workplace incivility on OCB through burnout: The moderating role of affective commitment. Journal of Business and Psychology, 34(5), 657-669.

Manakitsomboon, H. (2020). Wage reduction after COVID-19 Thailand Q2 2020, by type of businesses.[Chart]. Statista. https://www.statista.com/

Marcoulides, G. A., & Saunders, C. (2006). Editor's comments: PLS: A silver bullet?. MIS Quarterly,30(2), iii-ix.

Marketeer. (2020) Foreigners working in Thailand: Japan is disappearing, teachers, Filipino-Chinese are on the rise. https://marketeeronline.co/archives/190879 (in Thai)

Meyer, J. P., Stanley, D. J., Herscovitch, L., & Topolnytsky, L. (2002). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: A meta-analysis of antecedents, correlates, and consequences. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61(1), 20-52.

Mo, Y., Deng, L., Zhang, L., Lang, Q., Liao, C., Wang, N., Qin, M., & Huang, H. (2020). Work stress among Chinese nurses to support Wuhan in fighting against COVID-19 epidemic. Journal of Nursing Management, 28(5), 1002-1009.

Morrow, P. C., McElroy, J. C., & Scheibe, K. P. (2012). Influencing organizational commitment through office redesign. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 81(1), 99-111.

Moyer, F., Aziz, S., & Wuensch, K. (2017). From workaholism to burnout: Psychological capital as a mediator. International Journal of Workplace Health Management, 10(3), 213-227.

Nashwan, A. J., Abujaber, A. A., Villar, R. C., Nazarene, A., Al-Jabry, M. M., & Fradelos, E. C. (2021). Comparing the impact of COVID-19 on nurses’ turnover intentions before and during the pandemic in Qatar. Journal of Personalized Medicine, 11(456), 1-10.

Nitzl, C., Roldán, J., & Cepeda-Carrion, G. (2016). Mediation analysis in partial least squares path modeling: Helping researchers discuss more sophisticated models. Industrial Management & Data Systems, 116, 1849-1864.

OECD/ILO. (2017). How immigrants contribute to Thailand’s economy. OECD Publishing, Paris. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264287747-en

Post Reporters. (2021). Thailand third time unlucky: Bank research units have downgraded the 2021 GDP outlook as new wave of infections batters the economy. Bangkok Post, Business. https:// www.bangkokpost.com/business/2113083/thailand-third-time-unlucky

Porter, L. W., Streers, R. M., & Mowday, R. T. (1974). Organization commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover among psychiatric technicians. Journal of Applied Psychology, 59(5), 603-609.

Prommegger, B., & Krcmar, H. (2021, June). Through good times and bad: The influence of workplace social support on IT professionals' turnover intention during the COVID-19 Crisis. In Proceedings of the 2021 on Computers and People Research Conference, 13-21.

Qi, Z., & Zhu, J. (2007). The theory of organizational commitment and it's research development. Journal of Zhejiang University (Humanities and Social Sciences), 37(6), 90-98.

Rahman, M. A., Hoque, N., Alif, S. M., Salehin, M., Islam, S. M. S., Banik, B., Sharif, A., Nazim, N. B., Sultana, F., & Cross, W. (2020). Factors associated with psychological distress, fear and coping strategies during the COVID-19 pandemic in Australia. Globalization and Health, 16(1), 1-15.

Rivkin, W., Diestel, S., & Schmidt, K. H. (2015). Affective commitment as a moderator of the adverse relationships between day-specific self-control demands and psychological well-being. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 88, 185-194.

Royal Thai Government Gazette. (2008). Alien working Act, B.E. 2551 [2008], Government Gazette, 62 (11), 567-586.

Sanchez, B., & Maroney, N. (2015). Low R square in the cross section of expected returns. New Jersey: Kean University.

Taber, K. S. (2018). The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Research in Science Education, 48(6), 1273-1296.

Thatcher, J. B., & Perrewé, P. L. (2002). An empirical examination of individual traits as antecedents to computer anxiety and computer self-efficacy. MIS Quarterly, 26(4), 381-396.

Urbach, N., & Ahlemann, F. (2010). Structural equation modeling in information systems research using partial least squares. Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, 11(2), 5-40.

Worldometer. (2021). Coronavirus cases. https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/

Wen, B., Zhou, X., Hu, Y., & Zhang, X. (2020). Role stress and turnover intention of front-line hotel employees: The roles of burnout and service climate. Frontiers in Psychology, 11(36), 1-13.

Weng, Q., & Chen G. (2009). The origin and new evolution of organizational commitment. Science of Science and Management of S.&T., 30(011), 27-34.

Wong, A. K. F., Kim, S., Kim, J., & Han, H. (2021). How the COVID-19 pandemic affected hotel Employee stress: Employee perceptions of occupational stressors and their consequences. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93, 1-10.

Yang, Y., Wang, P., Kelifa, M. O., Wang, B., Liu, M., Lu, L., & Wang, W. (2021). How workplace violence correlates turnover intention among Chinese health care workers in COVID-19 context: The mediating role of perceived social support and mental health. Journal of Nursing Management, 00, 1-8.

Zandifar, A., & Badrfam, R. (2020). Iranian mental health during the COVID-19 epidemic. Asian journal of Psychiatry, 51, 101990.

Zhang, L., Lin, Y., & Zhang, L. (2013). Job insecurity and emotional exhaustion, the mediating effects of emotional labor. Journal of Management Science, 26(3), 1-8.

Downloads

Published

2022-06-01

How to Cite

Sun, X. . ., & Ma, Y. . . (2022). How The Perceived Threat of Covid-19 Aggravates Chinese Employees’ Emotional Exhaustion and Turnover Intention in Thailand: The Moderating Role of Affective Commitment . Creative Business and Sustainability Journal, 44(1), 1–17. Retrieved from https://so01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/CBSReview/article/view/258634

Issue

Section

Research Articles