Main Article Content
The objectives of this study are to explore the meaning of the employee engagement of Thai public hospitals in the Thai context and to investigate the factors that promote the employee engagement of Thai public hospitals under the Ministry of Public Health (MOPH). This study employed a qualitative phenomenological approach. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and participatory observations with 13 medical doctors, 15 general support employees, 15 medical support employees, and 15 nurses from three different hospitals across MOPH-owned hospitals, including community, general, and regional hospitals. Conventional content analysis, the frequency count occurrences of words, along with the five stages of inductive data analysis were applied for the analysis of the data.
The findings revealed 5 common components of the meaning of employee engagement, including positive emotion, wholehearted effort, organization accomplishment, desired behavior, and stay. The findings explored 16 factors that promoted employee engagement, which were categorized into 3 levels, including individual, group, and organization levels. The five factors at the individual level were personal resources, feeling important, relationship with colleagues, prolonged stay, and patient well-being. The three factors at the group level were collaboration, perceived supervisor support, and team work. The eight factors at the organization level included hospital image, job characteristics, family-like work climate, job security, leader, compensation, welfare, and learning and development opportunity.
1) The content of article in HROD journal is the author’s wholly responsibility to research, analyze, summarize, compile, and reference data. The editorial department will not be responsible in anyway.
2) The submitted articles in HROD journal must be unpublished before and must not be currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. If it is detected for its repetition, the author must be responsible for infringement of copyright.
3) Authors will be asked to transfer copyright of the article to the Publisher. The article is prohibited to reproduce all or part of the text, unless allowed.
Ahmed, I. (2019). Staff well-being in high-risk operating room environment: Definition, facilitators, stressors, leadership, and team-working—a case-study from a large teaching hospital. International Journal of Healthcare Management, 12(1), 1–17.
Akaraborworn, C., Rurkkhum, S., & Yodrakang, J. (2014). Developing Emo-meter as an employee engagement diagnosis tool for hospital accreditation in Thailand. Paper presented at the UFHRD Europe 2014, 14th International Conference on Human Resource Development Research and Practice Across Europe: HRD: Reflecting upon the Past, Shaping the Future, Edinburgh Napier University, Scotland, UK.
Anitha, J. (2014). Determinants of employee engagement and their impact on employee performance. International Journal of Productivity and Performance Management, 63(3), 308–323.
Bakker, A. B., & Demerouti, E. (2007). The job demands-resources model: State of the art. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22(3), 309–328.
Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., de Boer, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2003). Job demands and job resources as predictors of absence duration and frequency. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 62(2), 341–356.
Bass, B. M. (1997). Does the transactional–transformational leadership paradigm transcend organizational and national boundaries? American Psychologist, 52(2), 130–139.
Bengtsson, M. (2016). How to plan and perform a qualitative study using content analysis. NursingPlus Open, 2, 8–14.
Bentein, K., Vandenberghe, C., Vandenberg, R., & Stinglhamber, F. (2005). The role of change in the relationship between commitment and turnover: A latent growth modeling approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90(3), 468–482.
Creswell, J. W. (2012). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Davies, G., Mete, M., & Whelan, S. (2018). When employer brand image aids employee satisfaction and engagement. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 5(1), 64–80.
Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(3), 499–512.
Dhir, S., & Shukla, A. (2019). Role of organizational image in employee engagement and performance. Benchmarking: An International Journal, 26.
Dworkin, S. L. (2012). Sample size policy for qualitative studies using in-depth interviews. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 41(6), 1319–1320.
Eldor, L., & Vigoda-Gadot, E. (2017). The nature of employee engagement: Rethinking the employee–organization relationship. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 28(3), 526–552.
Hannah, D. R., & Lautsch, B. A. (2011). Counting in qualitative research: Why to conduct it, when to avoid it, and when to closet it. Journal of Management Inquiry, 20(1), 14–22.
Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Hayes, T. L. (2002). Business-unit-level relationship between employee satisfaction, employee engagement, and business outcomes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87(2), 268–279.
Heath, H., & Cowley, S. (2004). Developing a grounded theory approach: A comparison of Glaser and Strauss. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 41(2), 141–150.
Herzberg, F. (1968). One more time: How do you motivate employees? Harvard Business Review, 46(1), 53–62.
Jasper, M. A. (1994). Issues in phenomenology for researchers of nursing. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 19(2), 309–314.
Jaupi, F., & Llaci, S. (2015). The impact of communication satisfaction and demographic variables on employee engagement. Journal of Service Science and Management, 8(2), 191–200.
Joseph, J. O. (2016). Human resource management practices, employee engagement and organizational citizenship behaviours (OCB) in selected firms in Uganda. African Journal of Business Management, 10(1), 1–12.
Kahn, W. A. (1990). Psychological conditions of personal engagement and disengagement at work. Academy of Management Journal, 33(4), 692–724.
Lowe, G. (2012). How employee engagement matters for hospital performance. Healthcare Quarterly, 15(2), 29–39.
Macey, W. H., & Schneider, B. (2008). The meaning of employee engagement. Industrial and Organizational Psychology, 1(1), 3–30.
Mani, V. (2011). Analysis of employee engagement and its predictors. International Journal of Human Resource Studies, 1(2), 15–26.
Maslow, A. (1970). Motivation and Personality (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Harper and Row.
Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50(4), 370–396.
Maxwell, J. A. (2013). Qualitative research design: An interactive approach (3rd ed., Vol. 41). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
May, D. R., Gilson, R. L., & Harter, L. M. (2004). The psychological conditions of meaningfulness, safety and availability and the engagement of the human spirit at work. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(1), 11–37.
Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Office of the Public Sector Development Commission Thailand. (2017). Government 4.0. Retrieved from http://www.ocsc.go.th/sites/default/files/document/thai-gov-system-context-thailand-4-0.pdf
Pagaiya, N., & Noree, T. (2009, November). Thailand’s health workforce: A review of challenges and experiences. Presented at the International Health Policy Program, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand.
Pannucci, C. J., & Wilkins, E. G. (2010). Identifying and avoiding bias in research. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, 126(2), 619-625.
Pitt-Catsouphes, M., & Matz-Costa, C. (2008). The multi-generational workforce: Workplace flexibility and engagement. Community, Work & Family, 11(2), 215–229.
Ram, P., & Prabhakar, G. V. (2011). The role of employee engagement in work-related outcomes. Interdisciplinary Journal of Research in Business, 1(3), 47–61.
Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86(5), 825–836.
Saks, A. M. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(7), 600–619.
Saks, A. M. (2019). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement revisited. Journal of Organizational Effectiveness: People and Performance, 6(1), 19–38.
Saks, A. M., & Gruman, J. A. (2014). What do we really know about employee engagement? Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(2), 155–182.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Bakker, A. B. (2004). Job demands, job resources, and their relationship with burnout and engagement: A multi-sample study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 25(3), 293–315.
Schaufeli, W. B., Salanova, M., González-Romá, V., & Bakker, A. B. (2002). The measurement of engagement and burnout: A two sample confirmatory factor analytic approach. Journal of Happiness Studies, 3(1), 71–92.
Schaufeli, W. B., & Taris, T. W. (2014). A critical review of the job demands-resources model: Implications for improving work and health. In G. F. Bauer & O. Hämmig, Bridging Occupational, Organizational and Public Health (pp. 43–68). Retrieved from https://www.wilmarschaufeli.nl/publications/Schaufeli/411.pdf
Schaufeli, W., & Salanova, M. (2011). Work engagement: On how to better catch a slippery concept. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(1), 39–46.
Shuck, B. M., Rocco, T. S., & Albornoz, C. A. (2011). Exploring employee engagement from the employee perspective: Implications for HRD. Journal of European Industrial Training, 35(4), 300–325.
Shuck, B., Osam, K., Zigarmi, D., & Nimon, K. (2017). Definitional and conceptual muddling: Identifying the positionality of employee engagement and defining the construct. Human Resource Development Review, 16(3), 263–293.
Shuck, B., Reio, T. G., & Rocco, T. S. (2011). Employee engagement: An examination of antecedent and outcome variables. Human Resource Development International, 14(4), 427–445.
Shuck, B., Twyford, D., Reio, T. G., & Shuck, A. (2014). Human resource development practices and employee engagement: Examining the connection with employee turnover intentions. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 25(2), 239–270.
Shuck, B., & Wollard, K. (2010). Employee engagement and HRD: A seminal review of the foundations. Human Resource Development Review, 9(1), 89–110.
Simpson, M. R. (2009). Engagement at work: A review of the literature. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 46(7), 1012–1024.
So, T. T. C., West, M. A., & Dawson, J. F. (2011). Team-based working and employee well-being: A cross-cultural comparison of United Kingdom and Hong Kong health services. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 20(3), 305–325.
Spurgeon, P., Mazelan, P. M., & Barwell, F. (2011). Medical engagement: A crucial underpinning to organizational performance. Health Services Management Research, 24(3), 114–120.
Strategy and Planning Division. (2017a). From Thailand 4.0 to value-based healthcare 4.0. Retrieved from http://bps.moph.go.th/new_bps/sites/default/files/HC4.0_Jan-12-2016.pdf
Strategy and Planning Division. (2017b). Report on public health employees. Retrieved from http://bps.moph.go.th/new_bps/sites/default/files/personhealth2559.pdf
Strategy and Planning Division. (2017c). Report on public health resource. Retrieved from http://bps.moph.go.th/new_bps/sites/default/files/report-gis60_07Sep18.pdf
The Healthcare Accreditation Institute. (n.d.). Hospital and Healthcare Standards (4th ed.). Retrieved from https://www.ha.or.th/
The Stock Exchange of Thailand. (2019). List of companies/securities. Retrieved from https://www.set.or.th/en/company/companylist.html
Thomas, D. R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237–246.
West, M. A., Brodbeck, F. C., & Richter, A. W. (2004). Does the ‘romance of teams’ exist? The effectiveness of teams in experimental and field settings. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77(4), 467–473.
West, M., & Dawson, J. (2012). Employee engagement and NHS performance. London: The King’s Fund.
Wollard, K. K., & Shuck, B. (2011). Antecedents to employee engagement: A structured review of the literature. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 13(4), 429–446.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2007). The role of personal resources in the job demands-resources model. International Journal of Stress Management, 14(2), 121–141.
Xanthopoulou, D., Bakker, A. B., Demerouti, E., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2009). Reciprocal relationships between job resources, personal resources, and work engagement. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 74(3), 235–244.