The Relationship Between Optimism and Well-Being of Airlines’ Employees after Being Lay Off during The Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic: The Mediating Effect of Resilience

Main Article Content

Voralux Vorapuksirikool


This study examines the relationship between optimism and well-being of airline employees after being laid off due to the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic as well as the mediating effect of resilience on this relationship. Data were collected via a questionnaire which was returned by 419 airline employees who had been laid off in these circumstances. The respondents were selected through a non-probabilistic convenience sampling. Multiple linear regression was used to analyze and test the hypotheses. The results revealed that, although the relationship between optimism and well-being are strongly linked, it was partially mediated by resilience. This result is noteworthy for the airline employees when they are setting their attitudes and plans after being laid off. Not only optimism but also resilience is needed in these situations to maintain their feelings of well-being in their lives during such a crisis.

Article Details

Research Articles


Baron R. M., & Kenny D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51(6), 1173-1182.

Besharat, M., Salehi, M., Shahmohammadi, K. H., Nadali, H., & Zabardast, O. (2007). Relationship between resiliency and hard work and success in sport and mental health of athletes. Journal of Contemporary Psychology, 2, 38-39.

Carver, C. S., Scheier, M. F., & Segerstrom, S. C. (2010). Optimism. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(7), 879-889.

Chiok Foong Loke, J. (2001). Leadership behaviours: Effects on job satisfaction, productivity and organizational commitment. Journal of Nursing Management, 9(4), 191 – 204.

Cronbach, L. J. (1951). Coefficient alpha and the internal structure of tests. Psychometrika, 16, 297-334.

Diener, E., Emmons, R., Larsen, R., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71-75.

Ferguson, S. J., & Goodwin, A. D. (2010). Optimism and well-being in older adults: The mediating role of social support and perceived control. The International Journal of Aging and Human Development, 71(1), 43-68.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology: The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions. American Psychologist, 56, 218–226.

Gavin, J. H., & Mason, R. O. (2004). The virtuous organization: the value of happiness in the workplace. Organizational Dynamics, 33(4), 379 –392.

Gómez-Molinero, R., Zayas, A., Ruíz-González, P., & Guil, R. (2018). Optimism and resilience among university students. International Journal of Developmental and Educational Psychology, 1(1), 147-154.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. Bantam Books.

Hatchett, G. T., & Park, H. L. (2004). Relationships among optimism, coping styles, psychopathology, and counseling outcome. Personality and Individual Differences, 36(8), 1755-1769.

Harter, J. K., Schmidt, F. L., & Keyes, C. L. (2003). Well-being in the workplace and its relationship to business outcomes: A review of the Gallup studies. APA.

Haglund, M. E., Nestadt, P. S., Cooper, N. S., Southwick, S. M., & Charney, D. S. (2007). Psychobiological mechanisms of resilience: Relevance to prevention and treatment of stress-related psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 19(3), 889-920.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis (7th ed.). Pearson.

Ho, M. Y., Cheung, F. M. & Cheung, S. F. (2010). The role of meaning in life and optimism in promoting well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 48(5), 658-663.

International Air Transport Association. (2020, October 9). Airline industry will continue to burn through cash until 2022. publications/economic-reports/airline-industry-will-continue-to-burn-through-cash-until-2022/

Jangsiriwattana, T. (2021). The mediating effect on the relationship between perceived organizational support and work engagement. Academy of Strategic Management Journal, 20(5), 1-12.

Janmohamed, K., & Stewart-Brown, S. (2008). Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Well-being Scale (WEMWBS) user guide version 1. NHS Health Scotland, the University of Warwick and the University of Edinburgh.

Ju, H., Shin, J. W., Kim, C., Hyun, M., & Park, J. (2013). Mediational effect of meaning in life on the relationship between optimism and well-being in community elderly. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(2), 309-313.

Krypel, M. N., & Henderson-King, D. (2010). Stress, coping styles, and optimism: Are they related to meaning of education in students’ lives? Social Psychology of Education, 13(3), 409-424.

Malik, A. (2013). Efficacy, hope, optimism and resilience at workplace: Positive organizational behavior. International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 3(10), 1-4.

Masten, A. S., & Wright, M. (2010). Resilience over the Lifespan: Developmental perspectives on resistance, recovery. In J. W. Reich, A. J. Zautra, & J. S. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of adult resilience. The Guilford Press.

Ng, E. & Fisher, A.T. (2013). Understanding well-being in multi-levels: A review. Health, Culture and Society, 5(1), 308-323.

Noble T., McGrath H. (2012). Wellbeing and resilience in young people and the role of positive relationships. In S. Roffey (Ed.), Positive Relationships (pp. 17-33). Springer.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (2020, October 15). COVID-19 and the aviation industry: Impact and policy responses. Retrieved from

Pargament, K. I., & Cummings, J. (2010). Anchored by faith: Religion as a resilience factor. In J. W. Reich, A. J. Zautra, & J. S. Hall (Eds.), Handbook of adult resilience. The Guilford Press.

Peterson, C., & Seligman, M. E. (1984). Causal explanations as a risk factor for depression: Theory and evidence. Psychological review, 91(3), 347.

Ploughman, M., Downer, M. B., Pretty, R. W., Wallack, E. M., Amirkhanian, S., Kirkland, M. C., Fisk, J. D., Mayo, N., Sadovnick, A. D., Beaulieu, S., & Health, Lifestyle and Aging with MS Canadian Consortium. (2020). The impact of resilience on healthy aging with multiple sclerosis. Quality of Life Research, 29(10), 2769–2779.

Reguera-García, M. M., Liébana-Presa, C., Álvarez-Barrio, L., Gomes, L. A., & Fernández-Martínez, E. (2020). Physical activity, resilience, sense of coherence and coping in people with multiple sclerosis in the situation derived from COVID-19. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(21), 1-13.

Resnick, B., (2017, October). Measurement of resilience [Poster presentation]. The Centre for Aging Research & Education at Duke NUS The 8th APRU Population Aging Conference, Singapore.

Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. (2003). Flourishing under fire: Resilience as a prototype of challenged thriving. APA.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology Journal, 4(3), 219.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1992). Effects of optimism on psychological and physical well-being: Theoretical overview and empirical update. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 16(2), 201-228.

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (2002). Handbook of Positive Psychology. Oxford University Press.

Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A re-evaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67(6), 1063-1078.

Schumann, M. (2002). How we become moral: The sources of moral motivation. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Eds), Handbook of positive psychology (pp. 499-514). Oxford University Press.

Schuessler, K. F., & Fisher, G. A. (1985). Quality of life research and sociology. Annual Review of Sociology, 11(1), 129-149.

Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. Sociological Methodology, 13, 290-312.

Souri, H., & Hasanirad, T. (2011). Relationship between resilience, optimism and psychological well-being in students of medicine. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 1541-1544.

Synder, C. R., & Lopez, S. J. (2002). Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford University Press.

Tusaie-Mumford, K. (2001). Psychosocial resilience in rural adolescents: Optimism. Perceived social support and gender differences [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Pittsburgh.

Troy, A. S., & Mauss, I. B. (2011). Resilience in the face of stress: Emotion regulation as a protective factor. In S. M. Southwick, B. T. Litz, D. Charney, & M. J. Friedman (Eds.), Resilience and mental health: Challenges across the lifespan (pp. 30-44). Cambridge University Press.

Wagnlid, G. M., & Young, H. M. (1993). Development and psychometric evaluation of the resilience scale. Journal of Nursing Measurement, 1(2), 165-178.

Wagnild, G., & Young, H. (2009). The resilience scale user’s guide for the us English version of the resilience scale and the 14-item resilience scale (RS-14). Worden The Resilience Center.

Werner, E. E., & Smith, R. S. (2001). Journeys from childhood to midlife: Risk, resilience, and recovery. Cornell University Press.

Wrosch, C., & Scheier, M. F. (2003). Personality and quality of life: The importance of optimism and goal adjustment. Quality of Life Research, 12, 59–72.

Yamane, T. (1973). Statistics: An Introductory Analysis (3rd ed.). Harper and Row Publications.

Zarbova, B., & Karabeliova, S. (2018, January). Stress and well-being. Contemporary psychology and practice [Conference]. 12th International Conference Days of Applied Psychology, University of Nish, Serbia.

Yu, X., & Zhang, J. (2007). Factor analysis psychometric evaluation of the Conner-Davidson resilience scale (CD-RISC) with Chinese people. Social Behavior and Personality, 35(1), 19-30.