AIR DEFENCE IDENTIFICATION ZONES OUTSIDE SOVEREIGN AIRSPACE: UNSETTLED LEGALITY AND PROPOSED ALLOCATION OF AUTHORITY

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Abstract

ABSTRACT


          States tend to extend their air defence identification zones (ADIZs) to airspace not above their territory. As a result, this raises a legal question on which type of jurisdiction that each State exercises to prescribe its domestic law on foreign aircraft. This article, thus, studies principles in international law together with state practice of four selected States, namely, the United States of America, Canada, China, and Thailand. Aiming to address the legality of ADIZs in international law, this article first examines whether states have jurisdiction to declare ADIZs either on conventional or customary international law grounds. In particular, it considers if self-defense serves as a valid basis of states’ declaration of ADIZs. The result of this study reveals that there is no legal basis under international law to permit States to exercise their jurisdiction to prescribe rules on ADIZs in airspace outside their territory. Consequently, the article reviews the role of the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) on monitoring international aviation safety and proposes ICAO, according to its mandates, to publish standards, recommended practices, or manuals in order to regulate ADIZs. In addition, if ICAO has any questions concerning the status of ADIZs, it should ask the International Court of Justice for an advisory opinion.


 

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References

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