Exploration of the Causation of Stigmatization of Mental Illness in Thailand Perceptions of Thai University Students

Main Article Content

Nipawan Pitakchinnapong
Douglas Rhein

Abstract

This ethnographic study explores the perceptions of the causation of stigmatization of mental illness in Thailand. This article begins with an overview of the current state of mental health in Thailand and a description of the stigmatization of those suffering from mental health conditions. This is followed by the findings that emerged from interviews with forty college students from an undergraduate Social Science faculty. The forty participants were separated into two groups based on their educational program. The first group consisted of twenty students from a Social Science Faculty at Mahidol University International College, and the second group of twenty students represented a Social Science Faculty from a Thai program at Mahidol University. The findings indicate that while the participants in both groups claimed that they do not stigmatize mental health sufferers, they felt that as a whole, Thai society still does. The participants argued that most Thais still hold negative perceptions of mental illness due to the influences of family, media, and education. The study is descriptive in nature and aims to illustrate the participants’ perceptions of the causes of mental health stigmatization.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Section
Original Articles

References

Ainslie, M. (2016). K-dramas across Thailand: Constructions of Koreanness and Thainess by contemporary Thai consumers. The Asia-Pacific Journal, 14(7), 1–13.

American Psychiatric Association (2015). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th edition). Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://psychiatryonline.org/pb-assets/ dsm/update/DSM5Update2015.pdf

Amnatcharoenrit, B. (2006, May 12). South Korean series helps push Channel 3 profit up by 184 percent. Bangkok Post.

Anders, R., Thapinta, D., Wiwatkunupakan, S., Kitsumban, V. & Vadtanapong, S. (2003). Assessment of inpatient treatment of mentally ill patients in Thailand: implications for practice. Contemporary Nurse, 15(3), 322–332.

Astin, J. (1997) Stress reduction through mindfulness meditation: effects on psychological symptomatology, sense of control and spiritual experiences. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 66(2), 97–106.

Barg, C., Armstrong, B., Hetz, S., & Latimer, A. (2010). Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children. International Journal of Disability Development and Education, 57(4), 371–382.

Barner, M. (1999). Sex‐role stereotyping in FCC‐mandated children's educational television. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 43(4), 551–564.

Benbow, A. (2007). Mental illness, stigma, and the media. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 68(2), 31–35.

Burnard, P., Naiyapatana, W., & Lloyd, G. (2006). Views of mental illness and mental health care in Thailand: A report of an ethnographic study. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 13(6), 742–49.

Cahill, S., & Eggleston, R. (1995).Reconsidering the stigma of physical disability: Wheelchair use and public kindness. The Sociological Quarterly, 36(4), 681–698.

Carpiniello, B., & Pinna, F. (2017). The reciprocal relationship between suicidality and stigma. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 8, 35.

Charoenthaweesub, M., & Hale, C. (2011). Thai Family Communication Patterns: Parent-Adolescent Communication and the Well-Being of Thai Families. The first International Conference on Interdisciplinary Research and Development, 31 May – 1 June 2011, Thailand Retrieved from http://www.ijcim.th.org/ SpecialEditions/v19nSP1/02_84_16E_Mathurada%20ChAroenthaweesub[6].pdf

Chong, S., Abdin, E., Picco, L., Pang, S., Jeyagurunathan, A., Vaingankar, J., Kwok, K., & Subramaniam, M. (2016). Recognition of mental disorders among a multiracial population in Southeast Asia. BMC Psychiatry, 16(1), 121.

Crisp, A., Gelder, M., Rix, S., Meltzer, H., & Rowlands, O. (2000). Stigmatization of people with mental illnesses. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(1), 4–7.

Deveney, B. (2005). An investigation into aspects of Thai culture and its impact on Thai students in an international school in Thailand. Journal of Research in International Education, 4(2), 153–171.

Eisenberg, D., Downs, M., Golberstein, E., & Zivin, K. (2009). Stigma and help seeking for mental health among college students. Medical Care Research and Review, 66(5), 522–541.

Erlandson, D., Harris, E., Skipper, B., & Allen, S. (1993). Doing naturalistic inquiry. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.

Fry, G., & Bi, H. (2013). The evolution of educational reform in Thailand: the Thai educational paradox. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(3), 290–319.

Gerbner, G. (1999). The stories we tell. Peace Review, 11(1), 9–15. Gerbner, G., & Gross, L. (1976). The scary world of TV’s heavy viewer. Psychology Today, 9(11), 41–45.

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on a spoiled identity. Jenkins, JH and Carpenter.

Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the Management of Spoiled Identity. New York: Simon & Schuster, Inc.

Hanafiah, A., & Bortel, T. (2015). A qualitative exploration of the perspectives of mental health professionals on stigma and discrimination of mental illness in Malaysia. International Journal of Mental Health Systems, 9(10), 10.

Han, M., & Pong, H. (2015). Mental health help-seeking behaviors among Asian American community college students: The effect of stigma, cultural barriers, and acculturation. Journal of College Student Development, 56(1), 1–14.
Hofstede Insights (2017). Country comparison. Thailand. Retrieved from https://www.hofstede-insights.com/ country-comparison/thailand/

Holman, D. (2015). Exploring the relationship between social class, mental illness stigma and mental health literacy using British national survey data. Health, 19(4), 413–429.

Jeon, M., & Furnham, A. (2017). Mental health literacy in South Korea. International Journal of Culture and Mental Health, 10(4), 353–366.

Jones P. (1995) Paying respect: care of elderly parents by Chinese and Filipino American women. Health Care for Women International, 16(5), 385–398.

Jorm, A. (2000). Mental health literacy: Public knowledge and beliefs about mental disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry, 177, 396–401.

Jory, P. (2018). Bupphesanniwat Fever: Gendered Nationalism and Middle-Class Views of Thailand's Political Predicament. Sojourn: Journal of Social Issues in Southeast Asia, 33(2), 440–456.

Jorm, A., Korten, A., Jacomb, P., Christensen, H., Rodgers, B., & Polittt, P. (1997). "Mental health literacy": a survey of the public's ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. The Medical Journal of Australia, 166(4), 182–186.

Jung, H., Sternberg, K., & Davis, K. (2017). The impact of mental health literacy, stigma, and social support on attitudes toward mental health help-seeking. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 19(5), 252–267.

Kaewprom, C., Curtis, J., & Deane, F. (2011). Factors involved in recovery from schizophrenia: A qualitative study of Thai mental health nurses. Nursing & Health Sciences, 13(3), 323–327.

Kim, C. (2009, October 15). Beauty industry could create the next Korean wave. Chosun Ilbo. Retrieved from http://english.chosun.com/site/data/html_dir/2009/10/15/2009101500909.html

Klin, A., & Lemish, D. (2008). Mental disorders stigma in the media: review of studies on production, content, and influences. Journal of Health Communication, 13(5), 434–449.

Koenig, H., Weiner, D., Peterson, B., Meador, K., & Keefe, F. (1997) Religious coping in the nursing home: a biopsychosocial model. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 27(4), 365–376.

Kongsuk, T., Supanya, S., Kenbubpha, K., Phimtra, S., Sukhawaha, S., & Leejongpermpoon, J. (2017). Services for depression and suicide in Thailand. WHO South East Asia Journal of Public Health, 6(1), 34–38.

Krueger, R., & Casey, M. (2009). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (3rd edition). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Lauber, C., & Rossler, W. (2007). Stigma towards people with mental illness in developing countries in Asia. International Review of Psychiatry, 19(2), 157–178.

Levin, A. (2011, December 16). Media cling to stigmatizing portrayals of mental illness. Psychiatric News. Retrieved from http://psychnews.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/pn.46.24.psychnews_46_24_16-a

Lewis, M., & Minas, H. (2017). Why Historical, Cultural, Social, Economic and Political Perspectives on Mental Health Matter. In Minas, H., Lewis, M. (eds). Mental Health in Asia and the Pacific. International and Cultural Psychology, 1–10. New York: Springer.

Li, L., Lee, S., Thammawijaya, P., Jiraphongsa, C., & Borus, M. (2009). Stigma, social support, and depression among people living with HIV in Thailand. AIDS Care, 21(8), 1007–1013.

Link, B. (1987). Understanding labeling effects in the area of mental disorders: an assessment of the effects of expectations of rejection. American Sociological Review, 52(1), 96–112.

Link, B., & Phelan, J. (2001). Conceptualizing Stigma. Annual Review of Sociology, 27(1), 363–385.

Loo, P.-W., Wong, S. and Furnham, A. (2012). Mental health literacy: a cross-cultural study from Britain, Hong Kong and Malaysia. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 4(2), 113–125.

Mascayano, F., Armijo, J. E., & Yang, L. H. (2015). Addressing stigma relating to mental illness in Low- and middle-income countries. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 6, 38.

Motlova, L., Dragomirecka, E., Kitzlerova, E., & Hynkova, T. (2010). Improving physical health of people with schizophrenia: An important objective for mental health care. Die Psychiatrie: Grundlagen & Perspektiven, 7(1), 33–36.
Ojikutu, O., Pathak, S., Srithanaviboonchai, K., Limbada, M., Friedman, R., Li, S. Mimiaga, M., Mayer, K., Safren, S. (2016). Community cultural norms, stigma and disclosure to sexual partners among women living with HIV in Thailand, Brazil and Zambia. Plos ONE, 11(5), 1–16.

Phulsarikij, P. (2018, September) Living in the Online World. The Nation, Retrieved from http://www. nationmultimedia.com/detail/national/30354498

Papadopoulos, C., Leavey, G., & Vincent, C. (2002). Factors influencing stigma: a comparison of Greek-Cypriot and English attitudes towards mental illness in north London. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37(9), 430–434.

Papadopoulos, C., Foster, J., & Caldwell, K. (2013). 'Individualism-Collectivism' as an explanatory device for mental illness stigma. Community Mental Health Journal, 49(3), 270–280.

Pascucci, M., Montagna, M., Sabatino, D., Stella, E., Grandinetti, P., Testa, R. . . . Bellomo, A. (2017). Stigma and attitudes towards mental illness: Gender differences in a sample of Italian medical students. European Psychiatry, 41, S739.

Pinyuchon, M., & Gray, L. (1997). Understanding Thai families: a cultural context for therapists using a structural approach. Contemporary Family Therapy, 19(2), 209–228.

Ritchie, L. (1988). Family Communication Patterns and the Flow of Information in the Family. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Portland.

Sanseeha, L., Chontawan, R., Sethabouppha, H., Disayavanish, C., & Turale, S. (2009). Illness perspectives of Thais diagnosed with schzophrenia. Nursing and Health Sciences, 11, 306–311.

Schmidt, K., Miles, J., & Welsh, A. (2011). Perceived discrimination and social support: the influences on career development and college adjustment of LGBT college students. Journal of Career Development, 38(4), 293–309.

Scout, P., Villegas, J., & Jennings, N. (2004). Images of Mental illness in the media: identifying gaps in the research. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 30(3), 543–561.

Sethabouppha H. & Kane C. (2005) Caring for the seriously mentally ill in Thailand. Buddhist family caregiving. Archives of Psychiatric Nursing, 19(2), 44–57.

Sun, M., Pu, W., Wang, Z., Hu, A., Yang, J., Chen, X. . . . Rosenheck, R. (2013). Investigation on the influence of a didactic course in psychiatry on attitudes of mental illness in Chinese college students. Asia Pacific Psychiatry, 5(3), 147–151.

Suwanlert, S. (1976). Neurotic and psychotic states attributed to Thai "Phii Pob" spirit possession. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 10, 119–123.

Ta, T., Zieger, A., Schomerus, G., Cao, T., Dettling, M., Do, X. . . . Hahhn, E. (2016). Influence of urbanity on perception of mental illness stigma: a population based study in urban and rural Hanoi, Vietnam. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 62(8), 685–695.

Udomratn, P. (2009), Psychiatry in Translation from Thailand: compiled and translated by Pichet Udomratn. Asia-Pacific Psychiatry, 1(2), 98–100.

World Bank Group and World Health Organization. (2016). Out of the Shadows: Making Mental Health a Global Development Priority (Rep.). Retrieved http://www.who.int/mental_health/advocacy/wb_ background_ paper.pdf World Health Organization [Fact Sheet]. (2017, April). Mental disorders. Retrieved October, 2017, from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs396/en/ World Health Organization. (2006).

WHO-AIMS Report on Mental Health System in Thailand (pp. 2–27, Rep.). Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mental_health/thailand_who_aims_report.pdf

Yamada, M., Shimosato, S., Kazama, M., Tanaka, R., Panichkul, Y., Supatra, S. . . . Kazama, M. (2001). Investigation of nursing students’ attitudes toward people with mental disorders: A comparative study of Thailand and Japan. Bulletin of Yamanashi Medical University, 18, 69–75.

Zieger, A., Mungee, A., Schomerus, G., Ta, T., Dettling, M., Angermeyer, M., & Hahn, E. (2016). Perceived stigma of mental illness: a comparison between two metropolitan cities in India. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 58(4), 432–437.