Personal and School Factors, and the Mediating Role of School Engagement as Determinants of Student Leadership Skill A Structural Equation Model

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Sheryll Ann M. Castillo
Jezamine R. De Leon
Leonardo B. Dorado
Mylene S. Gumarao


Leadership is an important 21st century skill, and it is imperative for schools to develop responsible and authentic student leaders, not only to equip them for future employment, but also to produce a new breed of good leaders in society. However, school programs that aim to develop leadership capacities are short-term, and often benefit only the minority (such as students already elected as club/organization officers). Using structural equation modeling procedures, this study explored inherent personal and school factors, and the mediating role of school engagement in developing leadership skill among students. A total of 881 grade 9 and 10 students were selected for the study, through probability and non-probability sampling techniques, from schools in the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Pakistan. The analysis showed that school climate had the largest total effect, which suggests that a positive school climate is the strongest predictor of leadership development among students. Moreover, teacher quality achieved a full mediation to leadership skill, which implies that in producing leaders, the role of the teacher is to ensure that students are engaged in school. The theoretical and practical implications of the data are further discussed in the study.


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