Main Article Content
Leadership is an important 21st century skill, and it is imperative for schools to develop responsible and authentic student leaders, not only to equip them for future employment, but also to produce a new breed of good leaders in society. However, school programs that aim to develop leadership capacities are short-term, and often benefit only the minority (such as students already elected as club/organization officers). Using structural equation modeling procedures, this study explored inherent personal and school factors, and the mediating role of school engagement in developing leadership skill among students. A total of 881 grade 9 and 10 students were selected for the study, through probability and non-probability sampling techniques, from schools in the Philippines, Thailand, Indonesia, and Pakistan. The analysis showed that school climate had the largest total effect, which suggests that a positive school climate is the strongest predictor of leadership development among students. Moreover, teacher quality achieved a full mediation to leadership skill, which implies that in producing leaders, the role of the teacher is to ensure that students are engaged in school. The theoretical and practical implications of the data are further discussed in the study.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright: Asia-Pacific International University reserve exclusive rights to publish, reproduce and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein.
Adil, A., & Kamal, A. (2016). Impact of psychological capital and authentic leadership on work engagement and job related affective well-being. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 31(1), 1–21.
Alimbekova, A., Asylbekova, M., & Karimova, R. (2016). Development of leadership potential in students within an education space of a pedagogical university. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 11(11), 4610–4616.
Bennett, R. (2002). Employers' demands for personal transferable skills in graduates: A content analysis of 1000 job advertisements and an associated empirical study. Journal of Vocational Education and Training, 54(4), 457–476. doi: 10.1080/13636820200200209
Fredricks, J., Blumenfeld, P., Friedel, J., & Paris, A. (2005). School engagement. In K. Moore & L. Lippman (Eds.), The Search Institute series on developmentally attentive community and society. What do children need to flourish: Conceptualizing and measuring indicators of positive development (pp. 305–321). New York, NY, US: Springer Science + Business Media. Retrieved from https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/0-387-238239_19
Grady, M. (2018). Community college students: Social capital and the soft skills of leadership. Journal of Academic Administration in Higher Education, 14(1), 11–14.
Goldsmith, M., Morgan, H., & Ogg, A. (Eds.). (2004). Leading organizational learning: Harnessing the power of knowledge (Vol. 298). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Haley, K., Urquhart, C., Jones, N., Silverman, J., & Hunzicker, J. (2018). Teacher leader reflections: Teacher leadership and student learning. In Jana Hunzicker (Ed.), Teacher leadership in professional development schools (pp. 99–106). Bingley, UK: Emerald Publishing Limited.
Heinecke, W., Cole, R., Han, I., & Mthethwa, N. (2016). Student activism as civic engagement: Challenging institutional conditions for civic leadership at University of Virginia. In M. Krista, D. Tania & D. Mitchell (Eds.), Civic engagement and community service at research universities (pp. 219–239). London: Palgrave Macmillan.
Karagianni, D., & Montgomery, A. (2018). Developing leadership skills among adolescents and young adults: A review of leadership programmes. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(1), 86–98.
Kivunja, C. (2015). Teaching students to learn and to work well with 21st century skills: Unpacking the career and life skills domain of the new learning paradigm. International Journal of Higher Education, 4(1), 1–11.
Kolditz, T. (2010). In extremis leadership: Leading as if your life depended on it (Vol. 107). San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Kumar, V. (2018). Importance of leadership skills for students. Retrieved from https://www.klientsolutech.com/ importance-of-leadership-skills-for-students
Ledward, B., & Hirata, D. (2011). An overview of 21st century skills. Summary of 21st century skills for students and teachers. Honolulu: Kamehameha Schools–Research & Evaluation. Retrieved from https://www.ksbe.edu/ assets/spi/pdfs/21st_Century_Skills_Brief.pdf
Luthans, F., & Avolio, B. Authentic leadership development. In K. Cameron, J. Dutton & R. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship: Foundations of a new discipline (pp. 241–258). San Francisco, CA: BerrettKoehler Publishers, Inc.
Oades, L., Robinson, P., Green, S., & Spence, G. (2011). Towards a positive university. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(6), 432–439. dx.doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.634828
Pintrich, P., Smith, D., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. (1991). A manual for the use of motivated strategies for learning questionnaire (MLSQ) (No. 91-B, p. 004). Technical Report.
Portilla, X., Ballard, P., Adler, N., Boyce, W., & Obradović, J. (2014). An integrative view of school functioning: Transactions between self‐regulation, school engagement, and teacher–child relationship quality. Child Development, 85(5), 1915–1931.
Roche, M., Haar, J., & Luthans, F. (2014). The role of mindfulness and psychological capital on the well-being of leaders. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 19(4), 476.
Roth, R., Suldo, S., & Ferron, J. (2017). Improving middle school students' subjective well-being: Efficacy of a multicomponent positive psychology intervention targeting small groups of youth. School Psychology Review 46(1), 21–41. dx.doi.org/10.17105/10.17105/SPR46-1.21-41
Rubie‐Davies, C. (2010). Teacher expectations and perceptions of student attributes: Is there a relationship? British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(1), 121–135.
Schunk, D., Meece, J., & Pintrich, P. (2014). Motivation in education: Theory, research and applications (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson.
Thapa, A., Cohen, J., Guffey, S., & Higgins-D’Alessandro, A. (2013). A review of school climate research. Review of educational research, 83(3), 357–385.
van de Grift, W., Chun, S., Maulana, R., Lee, O., & Helms-Lorenz, M. (2017). Measuring teaching quality and student engagement in South Korea and The Netherlands. School Effectiveness and School Improvement, 28(3), 337-349.
Wang, M., & Degol, J. (2016). School climate: A review of the construct, measurement, and impact on student outcomes. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 315-352.
Waters, L., & White, M. (2015). Case study of a school wellbeing initiative: Using appreciative inquiry to support positive change. International Journal of Wellbeing, 5(1), 19-32. Retrieved from https://www.International journalofwellbeing.org/index.php/ijow/article/view/328/441
Wenzel, K. R. (1999). Social-motivational processes and interpersonal relationships: Implications for understanding motivation at school. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91(1), 76-97.
Zorina, A., Yarullina, A., Akhmetova, L., Shaimardanova, M., Nikishina, S., & Garipova, A. (2018). Leadership in the university student environment: How to become a person-oriented leader. International Journal of Instruction, 11(4), 271-286.