Social and Spiritual Determinants of Mental Health among Persons Deprived of Liberty A Basis for Program Development

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Gia Z. G. Ilagan
Karen A. D. Quidilla
Diana A. Elkanah
Rona B. S. Saban


Issues of mental health among persons deprived of liberty [PDLs] are seen, but mostly are not recognized in the Philippines. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the social and spiritual determinants of mental health among PDLs. The dimensions of mental health surveyed were self-esteem, aggressiveness, and outlook. Thisresearch was also conducted to establish the predictors of mental health. Through convenience sampling, 143 PDLs from a jail institution were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire was utilized, and the data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, analysis of variance, and linear regression. The study revealed that the respondents have high levels of social and spiritual determinants, high levels of self-esteem, a positive outlook, and low levels of aggression. Aggressiveness and outlook were significantly related to social and spiritual determinants. Furthermore, females had higher self-esteem and a more positive outlook than males, while the oldest age group had the highest aggression rate. Gender was the only predictor for self-esteem; social determinants and age were predictors for aggressiveness; and spirituality was the only predictor for respondents’ outlook. A proposed program was developed based on the results and –if implemented –aims to enhance the promotion of mental health among persons deprived of liberty.


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