Main Article Content
Issues of mental health among persons deprived of liberty [PDLs] are seen, but mostly are not recognized in the Philippines. This cross-sectional study aimed to identify the social and spiritual determinants of mental health among PDLs. The dimensions of mental health surveyed were self-esteem, aggressiveness, and outlook. Thisresearch was also conducted to establish the predictors of mental health. Through convenience sampling, 143 PDLs from a jail institution were selected. A self-constructed questionnaire was utilized, and the data gathered were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson’s correlation, analysis of variance, and linear regression. The study revealed that the respondents have high levels of social and spiritual determinants, high levels of self-esteem, a positive outlook, and low levels of aggression. Aggressiveness and outlook were significantly related to social and spiritual determinants. Furthermore, females had higher self-esteem and a more positive outlook than males, while the oldest age group had the highest aggression rate. Gender was the only predictor for self-esteem; social determinants and age were predictors for aggressiveness; and spirituality was the only predictor for respondents’ outlook. A proposed program was developed based on the results and –if implemented –aims to enhance the promotion of mental health among persons deprived of liberty.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright: Asia-Pacific International University reserve exclusive rights to publish, reproduce and distribute the manuscript and all contents therein.
Amuche , C., & Mayange, L. (2013). Relationship between self-esteem and personal development of prison inmates in Jalingo, Taraba State Nigeria. Journal of Education and Practice, 4(4), 277–283.
Awopetu, R., & Happiness, I. (2015). An assessment of aggressive behaviour between prison inmates and non- prison inmates in Makurdi-Metropolis, Nigeria. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 502–509.
Bahrami, E., Mazaheri, M., & Hasanzadeh, A. (2016). Effect of anger management education on mental health and aggression of prisoner women. Journal of Education and Health Promotion, 5(5), 393–404.
Beijersbergen, K., Dirkzwager, A., Van der Laan, P., & Nieuwbeerta, P. (2016). A social building? Prison architecture and staff-prisoner relationship. Crime and Deliquency, 62(7), 843–874.
Bleidorn, W., Arslan, R., Denissen, J., Rentfrow, P., Gebauer, J., Potter, J., and Gosling, S. (2016). Age and gender differences in self-esteem—a cross-cultural window. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 111(3), 396–410.
Chandrashekar, C., Suresh, B., Kumar, K., Moily, S., Ahalya, R. … John, R. (2007). Manual on students' counseling for college teachers (3rd ed). Bangalore: National Institute of Mental Health and NeuroScience (NIMHANS).
Cherry, K. (2018). What exactly is self-esteem: Signs of healthy and low self-esteem. Retrieved from: https://www.verywellmind.com/what-is-self-esteem-2795868
Chong, C. (2013). Inmate to inmate: Socialization, relationship, and community amongst incarcerated men. California: Legal Studies.
Chui, H. D. (2016). Age differences in the effects of self-esteem: The link between physical symptoms and daily affect. Journal of Gerontopsychology and Geriatric Psychiatry, 29(4), 189–200.
Conversano, C., Rotonto, A., Lensi, E., Vista, O. D., Arpone, F., & Reda, M. (2010). Optimism and its impact on mental and physical well-being.Clinic Practice & Epidemiology in Mental Health, 6, 25–29.
Crewe, B., Liebling, A., & Hulley, S. (2014). Staff-prisoner relationship, staff professionalism, and the use of authority in public and private sector prisons. Law & Social Inquiry, 40(2), 309–344.
Counselling Directory. (2016). Key statistics about men and mental health. Retrieved from https://www.counselling-directory.org.uk/men-and-mental-health-stats.html
Evans, L., Lewis, G., & Liu, J. (2012). Understanding aggressive behaviour across the life span. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 20(2), 156–168.
Fournelle, L., & Hofferber, S. (2014). Family support: What it means to male inmates. Family Support, 1-9. Retrieved from https://www2.uwstout.edu/content/rs/2008/12family%20support%20male%20 inmates%20for%20publication.pdf
Furtuna, D. (2014, September 22). Male aggression: Why are men more violent? Psychology Today. Retrieved from https://www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/homo-aggressivus/201409/male-aggression
Garcia-G., J., & Marco, A. (2012). Overcrowding in prisons and its impact of health. Revista Espanola de Sanidad Penitenciaria, 14(3), 106–113.
Gonzalez, J., & Connell, N. (2014). Mental health of prisoners: Identifying barriers to mental health treatment and medication continuity. Promoting Public Health Research, Policy, Practice and Education, 104(12), 2328–2333.
Greve, W., & Enzmann, D. (2003). Self-esteem maintenance among incarcerated young males: Stabilisation through accommodative processes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 27(1), 12–20.
Harries, E. (2017). The effects of social isolation on prisoners. Samuel Centre for Social Connectedness. Retrieved from https://www.socialconnectedness.org/the-effects-of-social-isolation-on-prisoners/
Jodi, K., Mohamad, M., Radzi, W., & Seman, A. (2014). The effectiveness of religious module in improving psyco-spiritual health for women inmates in prison. Life Science Journal, 11(3), 146–153.
Kamayo, J. (2018). Effects of imprisonment on self-esteem among female inmates in selected prisones in Kenya. European Scientific Journal, 14(17), 165–173
Khan, F. (2006). Age differences in expression of aggression in men and women. Journal of Independent Studies and Research, 4(1), 29–32.
Lichtenberg, J. (2016, September 30). America's prison system is inhumane. Here's why. The Week. Retrieved from https://theweek.com/articles/651722/americas-prison-system-inhumane-heres-why
Micu, A. (2016).). Inmates who watch nature shows in prison are 26% less aggressive than their counterparts. ZME Science. Retrieved from https://www.zmescience.com/ research/inmates-nature-59073/
Monroe, D. (2012). How does an incarcerated person keep a positive attitude after 10+ years in prison? Quora. Retrieved from https://www.quora.com/How-does-an-incarcerated-person-keep-a-positive-attitudeafter-10+-years-in-prison
Mruk, C. (2013). Self-esteem and positive psychology: Research, theory, and practice (4th ed.). New York: Springer Publishing Company.
Nurse, J., Woodcock, P., & Ormsby, J. (2003). Influence of environmnetal factors on mental health within prisons: Focus group study. British Medical Journal, 327(7413), 480.
Skowroński, B., & Domżalska, A. (2017). The spirituality of prisoners. Polish Journal of Social Rehabilitation, 13, 83–104.
Sparks, J. (2015). Aggression: Dispositional explanations. Psychology study notes. Retrieved from https://www.tutor2u.net/psychology/reference/aggression-dispositional-explanations
Stress Experts. (2013). Anger in prison. Retrieved from https://stressexperts.co.uk/author/admin/page/3/
Tomar, S. (2013). The psychological effects of incarceration on inmates: Can we promote positive emotion in inmates. Delhi Psychiatric Journal, 16(1), 64–72.
Vane, J., & Dirga, L. (2016). The religiousity behind bars: Forms of inmate's religiousity in the Czech prison system. Sociologia, 48(6), 641–663.
Wallace, D., Fahmy, C., Cotton, L., Jimmons, C., McKay, R., Stoffer, S., & Syed, S. (2014). Examining the role of familial support during prison and after release on post-incarceration mental health. International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology, 60(1), 3–20.
Yelland, E. (2015). Keys to embracing aging. Kansas State University Agricultural Experiment Station and Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved from https://www.bookstore.ksre.ksu.edu/pubs/ MF3260.pdf