Multiple Perspectives of Working From Home Lessons Learned During the Pandemic

Main Article Content

Rachaniphorn Ngotngamwong
Ricardo Lucio Ortiz


This qualitative phenomenological study investigated the varied experiences of professionals working from home in eight different countries (Asia, Australia, Brazil, and the USA) during the COVID-19 pandemic. In-depth structured open-ended interviews (10) were conducted using online video calls in 2022. Most people shifted to working from home (WFH) during the lockdown. The participants responded differently to this new working norm, reporting different productivity levels and distractions. Participants in IT departments experienced heavy workloads and long working hours. Many organizations transitioned from traditional to digital work methods as they found new ways to meet organizational goals. Some respondents preferred the hybrid working mode after the lockdown ended, while two preferred working entirely from home and four working entirely onsite. One participant moved his IT department to remote work to save office leasing costs as his employees preferred WFH after the pandemic. Some businesses were negatively impacted, and one restaurant closed permanently. This study provided valuable insights from the participants’ WFH experiences and their post-pandemic working preferences.

Article Details

Research Articles


Alrikabi, H., & Jasim, N., & (2021). Design and implementation of smart city applications based on the internet of things. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 15(13), 4–15. v15i13.22331

Amanullah, S., & Shankar, R.R. (2020). The Impact of COVID-19 on physician burnout globally: A review. Healthcare, 8(4), 421.

Bell, B., McAlpine, K., & Hill, N. (2019). Leading from a distance: Advancements in virtual leadership research. In R. Landers (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of technology and employee behavior (pp. 387–418). Cambridge University Press.

Belzunegui-Eraso, A., & Erro-Garcés, A. (2020). Teleworking in the context of the Covid-19 crisis. Sustainability, 12(9), 1–18.

Bevan, S., Mason, B., & Bajorek, Z. (2020, April). IES working at home well-being survey. Institute for Employment Studies.

Bloom, N. (2020, June). How working from home works out. Stanford Institute for Economic Policy Research.

Chow, J., Palamidas, D., Marshall, S., Loomes, W., Snook, S., & Leon, R. (2022). Teleworking from home experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic among public health workers (TelEx COVID-19 study). BMC Public Health, 22(1), 1–10.

Chinvararak, C., Kerdcharoen, N., Pruttithavorn, W., Polruamngern, N., Asawaroekwisoot, T., Munsukpol, W., & Kirdchok, P. (2022). Mental health among healthcare workers during COVID-19 pandemic in Thailand. PLoS ONE, 17(5), 1–14.

Chung, H., & van der Lippe, T. (2020). Flexible working, work-life balance, and gender equality: Introduction. Social Indicators Research, 151(2), 365–381.

Contreras, F., Baykal, E., & Abid, G. (2020). E-leadership and teleworking in times of COVID-19 and beyond: What we know and where do we go. Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 1–11.

Creswell, J. (2015). A concise introduction to mixed methods research. Sage Publications.

Fraenkel, J., Wallen, N., & Hyun, H. (2019). How to design and evaluate research in education (10th ed.). McGraw-Hill Education.

Green, N., Tappin, D., & Bentley, T. (2020). Working from home before, during and after the Covid-19 pandemic: Implications for workers and organisations. New Zealand Journal of Employment Relations, 45(2), 5–16.

Högberg, K. (2022). Learning to lead from a distance: Reflexive learning during a pandemic. International Journal of Advanced Corporate Learning, 15(1), 6–19.

Hunter, G. (2020). A lot can come from thinking outside the box: Online training during the pandemic. Education Journal, 409, 20.

Kniffin, K.M., Narayanan, J., Anseel, F., Antonakis, J., Ashford, S.P., Bakker, A.B., Bamberger, P., Bapuji, H., Bhave, D. P., Choi, V.K., Creary, S.J., Demerouti, E., Flynn, F.J., Gelfand, M.J., Greer, L.L., Johns, G., Kesebir, S., Klein, P.G., Lee, S.Y., . . . Vugt, M.v. (2021). COVID-19 and the workplace: Implications, issues, and insights for future research and action. American Psychologist, 76(1), 63–77.

Kossek, E., & Lautsch, B. (2018). Work–life flexibility for whom? Occupational status and work–life inequality in upper, middle, and lower level jobs. Academy of Management Annals, 12(1), 5–36. annals.2016.0059

Lopez-Leon, S., Forero, D., & Ruiz-Díaz, P. (2020). Recommendations for working from home during the pandemic (and beyond). Work, 66(2), 371–375.

Milasi, S., González-Vázquez, I., & Fernández- Macías, E. (2021). Telework before the COVID-19 pandemic: Trends and drivers of differences across the EU. OECD Publishing.

Monster. (2020, July 13). Monster poll results.

Ngotngamwong, R. (2023). Coping with the educational disruption during the COVID-19 pandemic by university lecturers in Thailand. Journal of Education Naresuan University, 25(2), 28–43.

Offstein, E., Morwick, J., & Koskinen, L. (2010). Making telework work: Leading people and leveraging technology for competitive advantage. Strategic HR Review, 9(2), 32–37.

Orth, D., & Schuldis, P. M. (2021). Organizational learning and unlearning capabilities for resilience during COVID-19. The Learning Organization, 28(6), 509–522. TLO-07-2020-0130

Park, M., Cook, A., Lim, J., Sun, Y., & Dickens, B. (2020). A systematic review of COVID-19 epidemiology based on current evidence. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(4), 967.

Parker, K., Minkin, R., & Bennett, J. (2020, September. 24). Economic fallout from COVID-19 continues to hit lower-income Americans the hardest. Pew Research Center.

Sahoo, P., Gulati, A., & Haq, I. (2021). COVID-19 & prospects of online work from home using technology: Case from India. International Journal of Online & Biomedical Engineering, 17(9), 106–118. v17i09.23929

Saran, C. (2021). Post-Covid workstation strategy needed. Computer Weekly, 15.

Singha, S., & Sivarethinamohan, R. (2021). A sustainable working model “Work from home” and the emerging themes during pandemic, A pilot study. Elementary Education Online, 20(4), 2527–2534.

Statistics New Zealand. (2019, June 21). Survey of working life: 2018.

Sutton, H. (2020). Stay focused and reduce stress while working from home, meeting virtually. Student Affairs Today, 23(9), 1–3.

Sytch, M., & Greer, I. (2020, August 18). Is your organization ready for permanent WFH? Harvard Business Review.

Tan, B., Chew, N., Lee, G., Jing, M., Goh, Y., Yeo, L., Zhang, K., Chin, H., Ahmad, A., Khan, F., Shanmugam, G., Chan, B., Sunny, S., Chandra, B., Ong, J., Paliwal, P., Wong, L., Sagayanathan, R., Chen, J., … Sharma, V. (2020). Psychological impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on health care workers in Singapore. Annals of Internal Medicine, 173(4), 317–320.

Vander Elst, T., Verhoogen, R., Sercu, M., Van Den Broeck, A., Baillien, E., & Godderis, L. (2017). Not the extent of telecommuting, but job characteristics as proximal predictors of work-related well-being. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 59(10), 180–186.

Wang, B., Liu, Y., Qian, J., & Parker, S. (2021). Achieving effective remote working during the COVID‐19 pandemic: A work design perspective. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 70(1), 16–59.

White, G. (2021). Burnout: Helping employees avoid & weather the challenges of working from home. Professional Safety, 66(5), 16–19.

Xiong, J., Lipsitz, O., Nasri, F., Lui, L., Gill, H., Phan, L., Chen-Li, D., Iacobucci, M., Ho, R., Majeed, A., & McIntyre, R. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on mental health in the general population: A systematic review. Journal of Affective Disorders, 277, 55–64.