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The objectives of this study were to (1) compare costs and returns between organic and chemical rice farming and (2) to investigate the problems of organic and chemical rice farming in Bung Ka Sam, Nong Suea district, Pathum Thani province in the year 2016. The samples were purposive sampling by interviewing five organic farmers and five chemical farmers. Quantitative data were analyzed using the following statistics: frequency, percentage and mean. Cost, income and returns analysis on investment and break-even analysis were also carried out. In conclusion (1) organic rice farming average cost per Rai was lower than chemical rice farming by 670.98 baht and average net profit per Rai was more than 973.97 baht. However, the return on assets was lower than that of chemical farming and the break-even rate of organic farming was lower than chemicals rice farming at 9.46 kilogram per Rai. (2) Problems and obstacles of both farming methods include water problems, plant diseases, insects and pests, capital, agricultural machinery demand, labor demand and grain prices.