Classroom Research: Challenging Experiences of Teachers Teaching Foreign Language in One Private School in Rayong Province, Thailand
Keywords:foreign language teachers, difficult experience, challenging experience, classroom research
This study was designed to understand the difficult experiences of the teachers conducting classroom research and the steps they follow to do it. To reveal the difficulties that teachers faced and the necessary support various people within the school should offer to assist teachers in enhancing their classroom research journey. This study is a qualitative study applying a Phenomenological research strategy. Twelve Thai foreign language teachers (Chinese, English, and Japanese), who have at least two years of teaching experience in a selected sizeable private school in Rayong, Thailand were participants in this study. Purposive sampling was applied to identify the informants. The data collection method was semi-structured interviews. To code and categorize the obtained data systematically, this study followed the steps of data analysis proposed by Moustakas (1994), ATLAS.ti, which is the qualitative software for data analysis, was executed. This study reports four perspectives of foreign language teachers towards conducting classroom research; Six steps the foreign language teachers took when conducting their classroom research; About 12 types of difficulties found when foreign languages teachers conducted classroom research and three kinds of techniques to minimize the challenges while conducting classroom research.
Aguilar-de Borja, J. M. (2018). Teacher action research: Its dfficulties and Implications. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 6(1), 29-35.
Allwright, D., & Bailey, K. M. (1991). Focus on the language classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Baker, A. A., & Lee, J. J. (2011). Mind the gap: Unexpected pitfalls in doing classroom research. The Qualitative Report, 16(5), 1435-1447.
Beninghof, A. M. (2020). Co-teaching that works: Structures and strategies for maximizing student learning. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley & Sons.
Book, C. L. (1996). Professional development schools. In J. Sikula (Ed.), Handbook of research on teacher education (4th ed., pp. 194-210). New York: Macmillan Library Reference.
Borja, J. M. D. (2018). Teacher action research: Its difficulties and implications. Humanities & Social Science Reviews, 6(1), 29-35.
Burns, A., & Westmacott, A. (2018). Teacher to researcher: Reflections on a new action research program for university EFL teachers. Profile Issues in Teachers Professional Development, 20(1), 15-23.
Carpenter, J. P., & Linton, J. N. (2018). Educators’ perspectives on the impact of Edcamp unconference professional learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 73, 56-69.
Cohen, L., Manion, L., & Morrison, K. (2007). Research methods in education (6th ed.). NY: Routledge.
CORTES, S. T. (2019). Needs assessment on action research competencies of teacher-researchers in Surigao del Sur, Philippines. Journal of Education Naresuan University, 21(4), 1-19.
Creswell, J. W. (1998). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five traditions. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications.
Daniel, J. (2020). Education and the COVID-19 pandemic. Prospects, 49(1), 91-96.
Dörnyei, Z. (2007). Research Methods in Applied Linguistics: Quantitative, Qualitative, and Mixed Methodologies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Edwards, E., & Burns, A. (2015). Language teacher action research: Achieving sustainability. ELT Journal, 70(1), 6-15.
Ellis, N., & Loughland, T. (2016). The challenges of practitioner research: A comparative study of Singapore and NSW. Australian Journal of Teacher Education, 41(2).
Ferrance, E. (2000). Action research. Providence, RI: LAB at Brown University.
Given, L. M. (2016). 100 questions (and answers) about qualitative research. CA: Sage.
Glanz, J. (2014). Action research: An educational leader's guide to school improvement. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.
Glossary Of Education Reform. (2015). Action Research. The Great Schools Partnership. Retrieved from https://www.edglossary.org/action-research/
Guba, E. (1981). Criteria for Assessing the Trustworthiness of Naturalistic Inquiries. Educational Communication and Technology, 29(2), 75-91.
Habibi, A., Mukminin, A., Riyanto, Y., Prasojo, L. D., Sulistiyo, U., Sofwan, M., & SAUDAGAR, F. (2018). Building an online community: Student teachers’ perceptions on the advantages of using social networking services in a teacher education program. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education, 19(1), 46-61.
Hackshaw, P. (2001). Classroom research: Getting started in small-scale research projects in the classroom. PAC3 at JALT2001 Proceedings, JALT, 120-132.
Haerazi, H., Vikasari, R. M., & Prayati, Z. (2019). The use of scientific-based approach in ELT class to improve students’ achievement and classroom interaction. Register Journal, 12(2), 157-180.
Harrell, M. C., & Bradley, M. A. (2009). Data collection methods: Semi-structured interviews and focus group. Santa Monica, CA: Rand.
Hassane, E. E. (2018). Encouraging Teacher Development through Conducting Action Research in Second Language Classes at a Kuwaiti Training Centre. Journal of Applied Linguistics and Language Research, 5(1), 1-14.
Herrera, L. J. P. (2018). Action research as a tool for professional development in the K-12 ELT classroom. TESL Canada Journal, 35(2), 128-139.
Hine, G. S. (2013). The importance of action research in teacher education programs. Issues in Educational Research, 23(2), 151-163.
Holstein, K., Hong, G., Tegene, M., McLaren, B. M., & Aleven, V. (2018). The classroom as a dashboard: Co-designing wearable cognitive augmentation for K-12 teachers. Proceedings of the 8th international conference on learning Analytics and knowledge, 79-88.
Hopkins, D. (1993). A Teacher's Guide to Classroom Research. Buckingham: Open University Press.
Indradhini, O. A. (2018). THE USE OF COOPERATIVE SCRIPT METHOD TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILLS (Classroom Action Research of the Seventh Gradeof MTs DarulUlumSuruh in the Academic Year of 2017/2018). IAIN Salatiga, Salatiga.
James, F., & Augustin, D. S. (2018). Improving teachers’ pedagogical and instructional practice through action research: Potential and problems. Educational Action Research, 26(2), 333-348
Jantarakantee, E., Roadrangka, V., & Clarke, A. (2012). Pre-Service Science Teachers' Understandings of Classroom Research and the Problems in Conducting Classroom Research Projects. US-China Education Review, 1, 112-120.
Joanna Marie Aguilar-de Borja. (2018). Teacher Action Research: Its Difficulties and Implications. Humanities & Social Sciences Reviews, 6(1), 29-35.
Johnson, A. P. (2012). A short guide to action research (4th ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Johnson, R. B., & Christensen, L. B. (2004). Educational research: Quantitative, qualitative, and mixed approaches. Boston, MA: Allyn and Bacon.
Kalman, M. (2019). “It Requires Interest, Time, Patience and Struggle”: Novice Researchers’ Perspectives on and Experiences of the Qualitative Research Journey. Qualitative Research in Education, 8(3), 341-377.
Kaup, S., Jain, R., Shivalli, S., Pandey, S., & Kaup, S. (2020). Sustaining academics during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of online teaching-learning. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology, 68(6), 1220.
Kaur, A., Young, D., , & Kirkpatrick, R. (2016). English Education Policy in Thailand: Why the Poor Results?. In: Kirkpatrick R. (eds) English Language Education Policy in Asia. Language Policy. Springer, Cham, 11, 345-361.
Kemmis, S., & McTaggart, M. (1988). The Action Research Planner (3rd ed.). Victoria: Deakin University.
Kolk, M. (2019). Embrace Action Research. Teaching and Learning. Educator. Retrieved from https://www.thecreativeeducator.com/v07/articles/Embracing_Action_Research
Kunlasomboon, N., Wongwanich, S., & Suwanmonkha, S. (2015). Research and development of classroom action research process to enhance school learning. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 1315-1324.
Lo Castro, V. (1994). Teachers helping themselves: Classroom research and action research. The Language Teacher, 18 (2), 4-7.
Macintyre, C. (2000). The Art of Action Research in the Classroom. London: David Fulton.
McGrew, S., Breakstone, J., Ortega, T., Smith, M., & Wineburg, S. (2018). Can students evaluate online sources? Learning from assessments of civic online reasoning. Theory & Research in Social Education, 46(2), 165-193.
McKay, S. L. (2006). Researching second language classrooms. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McTaggart, R. (1997). Participatory Action Research: International Contexts and Consequences. In R. McTaggart (Ed.), Participatory Action Research (pp. 1-12). Albany, NY: SUNY Press.
Mellati, M., & Khademi, M. (2018). Exploring teachers' assessment literacy: Impact on learners' writing achievements and implications for teacher development. Australian Journal of Teacher Education (Online), 43(6), 1-18.
Mertler, C. (2006). Action research: Teachers as researchers in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Mettetal, G. (2001). The What, Why and How of Classroom Action Research. JoSoTL, 2(1).
Mettetal, G. (2002a). Improving teaching through classroom action research. Essays on teaching excellence: Toward the best in the Academy, 14(7).
Mettetal, G. (2002b). The what, why and how of classroom action research. Journal of the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning, 2(1), 6-13.
Mills, G. E. (2011). Action research: A guide for the teacher researcher (4th ed.). Boston: Pearson.
Moustakas, C. (1994). Phenomenological research methods. . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Norasmah, O., & Chia, S. Y. (2016). The challenges of action research implementation in Malaysian schools. Pertanika Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 24(1), 43-52.
Nunan, D. (1990). Using learner data in curriculum development. English for Specific Purposes, 9(1), 17-32.
Nunan, D., & Bailey, K. M. (2009). Exploring Second Language Classroom Research: A Comprehensive Guide (1st ed.). Boston, MA: Heinle ELT.
Nurhayati, N., Rosmaiyadi, R., & Buyung, B. (2018). Efforts to improve student’s self confidence using collaborative learning model. JPMI, 2(2), 57-62.
Office of the Education Council. (1999). Education act B.E. 2542. Bangkok, Thailand.
Office of the Education Council, Thailand. (2017). The National Scheme of Education B.E. 2560-2579 (2017-2036). Retrieved from http://www.onec.go.th/us.php/home/category/CAT0000196
Office of the Permanent Secretary Ministry of Education. (2013). Education Development Plan of the Ministry of Education No. 11 B.E. 2555 - 2559. Bangkok, Thailand.
ONEC (Office of the National Education Commission). (2002). National education act 1999 and amendments second national education act 2002. Bangkok: Pimdeekanpim Co., Ltd.
Ong, M., Smith, J. M., & Ko, L. T. (2018). Counterspaces for women of color in STEM higher education: Marginal and central spaces for persistence and success. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 55(2), 206-245.
Pambuena, E., & Bernarte, R. (2018). The Research Skills, Personal Effectiveness, Networking and Team Working, and Communication Skills of Polytechnic University of the Philippines Laguna Campuses Faculty: Basis for an Action. KnE Social Sciences, 4, 339–359.
Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods. Newbury Park, CA: SAGE Publications, inc.
Poole, A., Yue, S., & Liujinya, Y. (2021). ‘We have the DNA of a university’: Chinese english teachers’ conceptions of classroom research. Professional Development in Education, 1-16. doi:10.1080/19415257.2021.1950032
Pramantik, I. A. D., & Burhaein, E. (2019). A Floor Time Approach to Improve Learning Outcomes of the Body Roll to the Side in Adaptive Physical Education Learning: Classroom Action Research Study on Two Cerebral Palsy Students. International Journal of Disabilities Sports and Health Sciences, 2(2), 45-53.
Purohman, P. S. (2018). Classroom Action Research Alternative Research Activity for Teachers. Research gate.
Sagor, R. (2000). Guiding School Improvement with Action Research. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Saiyasombut, S., & Voices, S. (2012). Thai education failures-part4: Dismal English-language training. Asian Correspondent.
Salmani-Nodoushan, M. A. (2006). Research in the Language Classroom: State of the Art. Journal of Language and Linguistic Studies, 2(2).
Sato, M., & Loewen, S. (2019). Do teachers care about research? The research–pedagogy dialogue. ELT Journal, 73(1), 1-10.
Silverman, D. (2006). Interpreting qualitative data (3rd ed.). London: Sage.
Smith, K., & Sela, O. (2005). Action research as a bridge between pre-service teacher education and in-service professional development for students and teacher educators. European Journal of Teacher Education, 28(3), 293-310.
Spencer, J. A., & Molina, S. C. (2018). Mentoring graduate students through the action research journey using guiding principles. Educational Action Research, 26(1), 144-165.
Stewart, T. (2013a). Classroom Research and Classroom Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.litu.tu.ac.th/journal/FLLTCP/Proceeding/134.pdf
Stewart, T. (2013b). Classroom Research for Language Teachers. . Alexandria, VA: TESOL Publications.
Stringer, E. T. (2008). Action research in education (2nd ed.). New Jersey: Pearson.
Stronge, J. H. (2018). Qualities of effective teachers. Alexandria, VA: ASCD.
Tan, P., Wu, H., Li, P., & Xu, H. (2018). Teaching management system with applications of RFID and IoT technology. Education Sciences, 8(1), 26.
Tangyuenyong, P., & Choonharuangdej, S. (2010). Research on the teaching and learning of the Chinese language in higher education institutions in Thailand: A Summary. Thai World Affairs Center. Retrieved from http://www.thaiworld.org/upload/question/file_830.pdf
Tindowen, D. J., Guzman, J., & Macanang, D. (2019). Teachers’ conception and difficulties in doing action research. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 7(8), 1787-1794.
Toquero, C. M. D. (2021). "“Real-world:” preservice teachers' research competence and research difficulties in action research". Journal of Applied Research in Higher Education, 13(1), 126-148.
Trent, J. (2018). “It’s like starting all over again”. The struggles of second-career teachers to construct professional identities in Hong Kong schools. Teachers and Teaching, 24(8), 931-950.
Ulla, M. B. (2018). Benefits and challenges of doing research: Experiences from Philippine public school teachers. Issues in Educational Research, 28(3), 797-810.
Vásquez, V. E. L. (2017). Teachers as researchers: Advantages, disadvantages, and challenges for teachers intending to engage in research activities. . Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/719736
Wahyuni, S. (2020). Islamic Junior High School Teachers’ Perceptions, Practices and Problems in Conducting Classroom Action Research. Didaktika Religia, 8(1), 78-96.
Wulandari, D., Narmaditya, B. S., Utomo, S. H., & Prayi, P. H. (2019). Teachers’ Perception on Classroom Action Research. KnE Social Sciences, 3, 313-320.
Yohannes Wakjira. (2011). Practice and challenges in conducting educational research in the selected secondary schools of Ilubabor Zone., Ababa University, Addis Ababa.
Zambo, D., & Zambo, R. (2006). Action research in an undergraduate teacher education program: What promises does it hold? Action in Teacher Education, 28(4), 62-74.
Zwane, S. L., & Malale, M. M. (2018). Investigating barriers teachers face in the implementation of inclusive education in high schools in Gege branch, Swaziland. African journal of Disability, 7(1), 1-12.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Department of International Graduate Studies in Human Resource Development, Faculty of Education, Burapha University
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright@HRD Journal, Burapha University