Antecedent Factors for Collective Leadership Development in Social Enterprise Management: Case Studies of Thai Social Enterprises

Main Article Content

Tharinee Suratpipit
Chartchai Na Chiangmai


This study aims to explore perceived meaning and the antecedent factors that foster collective leadership development (CLD) for social enterprise management (SEM). The qualitative research approach was employed and three listed companies in Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET) were recruited in the study to explore how social enterprise management has been conducted in private sectors. Sixteen participants were selected for the interview based on purposive and snowball sampling. Findings revealed that SEM required to have people with skills, continuous process improvement and clear sense of purpose as the foundation for success. Four antecedent factors consisted of leader capability, collaborative network, organization culture and collective learning were found to have positive relationship to CLD. Findings also stated that leadership empowerment, continuous learning, supportive coaching and monitoring system and having climate for change were accelerating factors for CLD. In conclusion, there will be an exigent demanding for organizations, especially social enterprises, to call for collective leadership as a new way for leadership management. As social enterprises aim to create sustainable impacts through achieving triple bottom line including financial, social and environmental; therefore, it is crucial to have a platform that enable CLD and practices in the organizations.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details

Research Articles



Ashoka Foundation. (2005). What is a social entrepreneur? Retrieved August 12, 2018, from

Bass, B. (1985). Leadership and performance beyond expectations (2nd ed.). New York: Free.

Bass, B. (1999). Two decades of research and development in transformational leadership. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 8(1), 9-32.

Berman, E. (2000). Performance measurement in US countries: capacity to reform. Public Administration Review, 60(5), 409-420.

Camarinha-Matos, L., Afsarmanesh, H., Galeano, N., & Molina, A. (2009). Collaborative networked organization - Concepts and practice. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 57(1), 46-60. doi:10.1016/j.cie.2008.11.024.

Canadian Centre for Social Entrepreneurship. (2001, February). Social Entrepreneurship Discuss Paper No.1. Canadian Center for Social Enterprise.

Collins, J. (2001). Good to great. New York: HarperCollins.

Cook, B., Dodd, C, & Mitchell, W. (2001). Social entrepreneurship: false premises and dangerous forebodings. Centre of Full Employment and Equity, University of Newcastle, Working paper no. 01-24. Retrieved from /coffee

Creswell, J. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative , and mixed methods approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Creswell, J. (2012). Educational research: planning, conducting and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston: MA, Pearson.

Dansereau, F., & Yammarino, F. J. (1998). Leadership: The multi-level approaches (Monographs in Organizational Behavior and Industrial Relations Vol. 24 Part A&B). Stamford: CT, JAI Press.

Day, D., Gronn, P., & Salas, E. (2004). Leadership capacity in teams. The Leadership Quarterly, 15(6), 857-880.

Dee, J. G. (1998). Enterprising nonprofits. Harvard Business Review, 76(1), 54-67.

Digenti, D. (1999). Collaborative learning: A core capacity for organizations in the new economy. Reflections, 1(2), 45-55.

Drayton, B. (2002). The citizen sector: Becoming entrepreneural and competitive as business. California Management Review, 44, 120-132.

Friedrich, T., Vessey, W., & Schuelke, M. (2009). A framework for understanding collective leadership: The selective utilization of leader and team expertise within networks. The Leadership Quarterly, 20(6), 933-958.

Gronn, P. (2002). Distributed leadership as a unit of analysis. The Leadership Quarterly, 13(4), 423-452.

Jackson, T. (2009). Prosperity without growth: economics for a finite planet. London: Earthscan.

Konczak, L., Stelle, D.J., & Trusty, M.L. (2000). Defining and measuring empowering leader behaviors: Development of an upward feedback instrument . Educational and Psychology Measurement, 60(2), 301-313.

Lam, A. (2000). Tacit knowledge, organizational learning and societal institutions: An integrated framework. Organizations Studies, 21(3), 487-513.

Leadbeater, C. (1997). The rise of social entrepreneur. London: Demos.

Light, P. (2008). The search for social entrepreneurship. Washington, DC: Brooking Institution Press.

Maak, T., & Stoetter, N. (2012). Social entrepreneurs as responsible leaders: Fundacion Paraguaya and the case of Martin Burt. Journal of Business Ethics, 111(3), 413-430.

Mayfield, J., & Mayfield, M. (2007). The Effects of Leader Communication on a worker's intend to saty: An investigationusing structural equation modeling. Human Performance, 20(2), 85-102.

Nicholla, A. (2006). New models of sustainable social change. New York: Oxford University Press .

Pearce, C., & Conger, J.A. (2003). All those years ago: The historical underpinning of shared leadership. In C. L. Pearce & J. A. Conger (Eds.), Shared leadership: Reframing the hows and whys of leadership. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Pearce, C., & Sims, H. P. (2002). Vertical versus shared leadership as predictors of the effectiveness of change management teams: An examination of aversive, directive, transactional, transformational, and empowering leader behaviors. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 6(2), 172-197.

Schein, E. (1992). Organizational culture and leadership (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Schwab Foundation. (2019, August 6). Schwab foundation for social enterpreneurship. Retrieved from

Senge, P., & Kaeufer, K. (2001). Communities of leaders or no leaderhip at all. In S. Chowdhury (Ed.), Management 21C. New York: Prentice Hall.

SET. (2018). List of companies/securities. Retrieved from

Shaw, E. (2004). Marketing in the social enterprise context: Is it entrepreneural? Qualitative Marketing Research: An International Journal, 7(3), 194-205.

Sparrowe, R., & Liden, R. C. (2005). Tow routes to influence: integrating leader-member exchange and social neteork perspectives. Administrative Science Quarterly, 50, 505-535.

Srivastava, A., Batol, K.M., & Locke, E.A. (2006). Empowering leadership in management teams: effects on knowledge sharing, efficacy, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 49(6), 1239-1251.

Takeuchi, H. (2006). The new dynamism of the knowledge-creating company. Retrieved October 21, 2018, from

Thompson, J., Alvy, G., & Lees, A. (2000). Social entrepreneurship: A new look at the people and the potential. Management Decision, 38, 328-338.

Thomson, J. (2002). The world of social entrepreneur. The International Journal of Public Sector Management , 15(5), 412-431.

Thai Social Enterprise Office. (2000). TSEO. Retrieved from

Wallace, S. (1999). Social entrepreneurship: The role of social purpose enterprise in facilitating community economic development. Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, 4, 153-174.

Wenger, E. (1998). Communities of practice: Learning , meaning and identify. Cambridge University Press.

West, M., Eckert, R., Steward, K., & Pasmore, B. (2014). Developing collecive leadership for health care. Center for Creative Leadership.

Yukl, G. (1989). Managerial leadership: A review of theory and research. Journal of Management , 15(2), 251-289.

Yukl, G., & Fu, P. (1999). Determinants of delegation and consultation by managers. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 20(2) 219-232.