• Kazuhiro Yamamoto


ศาสนา, อินเดีย


This paper’s purpose is to clarify the starting point of the pursuit of the truth in the Upanisฺads and the Sutta-pitฺaka.

Generally in ancient India, the people’s main concern lies in a religious practice and a spiritual cultivation, not in a theoretical speculation. However, it does not necessarily mean that they have no interest in the philosophical quest for the truth. This “truth” (Skt. satya, PĀli sacca) is the Immortal. It is Brahma, which is also called “the truth of truth” (satyasya satyaṃ), in the Upanisฺads Or it is the Dhamma in the Sutta-pitฺaka. To understand this pursuit of the truth in ancient India, there is a clue. It is “knowledge” (SKT.JÑĀNA, PĀLI PAÑÑĀ).

In both the old Upanisฺads and early Buddhism, this knowledge, or this intuitive knowledge, is the starting point of the pursuit of the truth. Moreover, in both of them, this intuitive knowledge is regarded as “transcendental knowledge” or “universal knowledge.” In other words, this knowledge is that through which this whole ephemeral world is to be understood, or that through which the whole existence of this ephemeral world is established. This paper concludes that, in regard to this knowledge as the starting point of the pursuit of the truth, early Buddhism is an authentic follower of the old Upanisฺads



Davids, Caroline A.F. Rhys, ed. A Buddhist Manual of Psychological Ethics. London and Boston: P.T.S., 1974.

Deussen, Paul. Die Philosophie der Upanishad’s. Leibzig: F. A. Brock haus, 1920.

Radhakrishnan, S., ed. trans. The Principal Upaniṣads. India: Harper Collins, 1953.

Śaṅkarācārya. Works of Śaṅkarācārya in Original Sanskrit. vol. 1, Ten Principal Upaniṣads with Śāṅkarabhāṣya. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1978.

Warren, Henry Clarke, and Dharmananda Kosambi, ed. Visuddhimagga of Buddhaghosâcariya. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1950.

พุทธทาสภิกขุ. คู่มือมนุษย์ ฉบับสมบูรณ์. กรุงเทพฯ: สุขภาพใจ, 2549.

มหามกุฏราชวิทยาลัย. สฺยามรฏฺสฺส เตปิฏกํ. เล่มที่ 9-14. กรุงเทพฯ: โรงพิมพ์มหามกุฏราชวิทยาลัย, 2523.

มหาวิทยาลัยมหิดล, สํานักคอมพิวเตอร์. พระไตรปิฎกอรรถกถา-ฎีกาฉบับคอมพิวเตอร์ BUDSIR/TT V.3 for Windows [CD-ROM]. 2548.