A Review Paper on Visible and Invisible Underemployment

  • อรรฆยา เซ็นเครือ คณะบริหารธุรกิจฯ ม.นเรศวร
Keywords: Underemployment, time-related underemployment, overemployment, skill mismatch, qualification mismatch, income-related underemployment


Underemployment is a severe form of labor underutilization which adversely impacts productivity and economic growth. However, unlike unemployment, the topic of underemployment receives far less attention than it deserves. Specifically, there are two types of underemployment: time-related underemployment and inadequate employment situation. The aim of this research is to provide a comprehensive review of underemployment, including types, measurement, and the extent of underemployment among countries, including Thailand. The findings reveal that the majority of existing studies on underemployment are centered on time-related underemployment due to the availability of data. In contrast, research studies on skill mismatch, income-related inadequate employment, and overemployment are limited.


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