Fieldtrip Advantages for Tourism Students: Contributing Towards Hierarchical Aspect of the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) Theory

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Chai Ching Tan
Nutteera Phakdeephirot
Wiyada Sereewichayaswat


Fieldtrip is an important pedagogical means which tourism education in Thailand is actively pursuing. Nevertheless, the advantage of field trips manifested through the ability to see the actual theory in the practical field is relatively unexplored. This study thus proposes a stimulus-organism-response (S-O-R) framework as a platform bridging the abstract conceptualization of theory and concrete experience of field trip in experiential learning theory. To help researchers identify and operationalize the relevant constructs in the S-O-R model, socio-cognitive theory is adapted which provides, for instance, the destination environmental attributes, as the stimuli to induce perceptual working of students as tourists and thus loyalty response to the trip arrangement. The tourism students formed the population framework in which one-hundred-and-seventy valid responses were made available and provided the data base for multivariate statistical analysis. The measurement instrument was subjected to reliability and construct validity assessment, using statistical parameters such as total variance explained and cross-correlations, and definitions of variables and appropriate context as the rigorous guidelines. In particular, convergent and divergent validity assessments further support the construct validity. Structural equation modeling (SEM) analysis highlights both incremental (NFI=0.983, CFI=0.996 and TLI=0.991), and absolute fits (i.e. RMSEA=0.04, SRMR=0.0246) and illuminates the role of field trip in facilitating the data collection ground for testing and validating the theories – presenting an obvious pedagogical advantage for tourism studies.


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Tan, C. C. ., Phakdeephirot, N. . ., & Sereewichayaswat, W. . . (2020). Fieldtrip Advantages for Tourism Students: Contributing Towards Hierarchical Aspect of the Stimulus-Organism-Response (S-O-R) Theory. Dusit Thani College Journal, 13(3), 164–179. Retrieved from
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