Environmental Migrants and International Law ผู้อพยพด้านสิ่งแวดล้อมและกฎหมายระหว่างประเทศ

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Alexander Shytov

บทคัดย่อ

The paper examines the current state of international law in relation to the problem of environmental migrants. The existing legal categories of political refugees and economic migrants are not well suited to find the right legal response to the migrants fleeing from environmental degradation. The existing international law agreements fail to provide clear guidance to address the current problem of the displaced people who flee from ecological catastrophes. The lack of legal clarity can be rectified by adopting the view of the natural law tradition as reflected in major world religious traditions. The principles of natural law provide clear, stable, and authoritative moral principles to be applied to solve complex problems when the legitimate interests of the environmental refugees collide with the legitimate interests of the states of asylum. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate that the moral principles as articulated in the world religions can assist the decision makers to find the right balance between the interests of local population and the interests of the environmental migrants. 

บทความนี้ทบทวนสถานะของกฎหมายระหว่างประเทศในประเด็นปัญหาของผู้อพยพด้านสิ่งแวดล้อม การจำแนกผู้อพยพด้านการเมืองและเศรษฐกิจ โดยกฎหมายที่ดำรงอยู่ยังไม่เหมาะสมต่อการค้นหามาตรการทางกฎหมายสำหรับผู้อพยพจากความเสื่อมโทรมทางสิ่งแวดล้อม ข้อตกลงของกฎหมายระหว่างประเทศที่ดำรงอยู่ ไม่สามารถจัดหาแนวทางที่ชัดเจนในการตอบสนองต่อประชาชนผู้โยกย้ายจากหายนะทางนิเวศน์ การขาดความชัดเจนด้านกฎหมายสามารถปรับแก้ได้ด้วยการรับมุมมองของแนวคิดกฎหมายธรรมชาติ ซึ่งปรากฏอยู่ในศาสนาหลักของโลก หลักกฎหมายธรรมชาติเสนอหลักการที่ชัดเจน มั่นคง มีอำนาจทางศีลธรรม ซึ่งสามารถนำมาแก้ไขปัญหาที่ซับซ้อน เมื่อผลประโยชน์ของผู้อพยพด้านสิ่งแวดล้อมเผชิญกับผลประโยชน์ของรัฐที่ลี้ภัย เป้าหมายของบทความนี้ต้องการอธิบายว่าหลักการทางศีลธรรม ซึ่งถูกสร้างขึ้นในมุมมองทางศาสนาสามารถช่วยผู้ทำหน้าที่ตัดสินใจค้นหาความสมดุลย์ระหว่างผลประโยชน์ของประชาชนในท้องถิ่นกับผลประโยชน์ของผู้อพยพด้านสิ่งแวดล้อม 

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