Perception of Tourism Impact to Support Tourism Development: The Case of Chakma Indigenous Community in Rangamati, Bangladesh

Main Article Content

Supratic Chakma
Sakchai Setarnawat
Tinikan Sungsuwan


        The paper aimed to identify an indigenous community perception of tourism impacts to support tourism development and to study whether length of residence and distance from tourism zone moderates the perception. This study adopted the Social Exchange Theory (SET) as a theoretical basis. Data were collected from 375 Chakma indigenous community members residing in Rangamati, Bangladesh through a questionnaire survey. Questionnaires were designed following a non-forced approach to avoid biases and to obtain the actual perceptions. The data were analyzed by Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Results suggested that only the economic impact had greater and significant effect on the community perception to support tourism development than the socio-cultural and environmental impact and only length of residence moderates the perception of economic impact. This study findings offer recommendations to the stakeholders to create additional economic opportunities for the host community as well as initiate crowd management program and behavioral awareness events for tourists to improve the indigenous community support for tourism development.


Download data is not yet available.

Article Details



Al-Masroori, R. S. (2006). Destination Competitiveness: Interrelationships between destination planning and development strategies and stakeholders’ support in enhancing Oman’s tourism industry. Doctor of Philosophy Griffith Business School, Department of International Business and Asian Studies, Griffith University.

An, Y. (2016). Resident's perception of tourism development in Greenville, SC, USA. Thesis, Master of Science, Tigerprints, Clemson University.

Andereck, K. L., Valentine, K. M., Knopf, R. C., & Vogt, C. A. (2005). Residents’ perceptions of community tourism impacts. Annals of tourism research, 32(4), 1056-1076.

Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological bulletin, 103(3), 411-423.

Ap, J. (1992). Residents' perceptions on tourism impacts. Annals of tourism Research, 19(4), 665-690.

Ap, J., & Crompton, J. L. (1998). Developing and testing a tourism impact scale. Journal of travel research, 37(2), 120-130.

Aref, F., Redzuan, M. R., & Gill, S. S. (2009). Community perceptions toward economic and environmental impacts of tourism on local communities. Asian Social Science, 5(7), 130-137.

Bagozzi, R. P., & Yi, Y. (2012). Specification, evaluation, and interpretation of structural equation models. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 40(1), 8-34.

Boonsiritomachai, W., & Phonthanukitithaworn, C. (2019). Residents’ Support for Sports Events Tourism Development in Beach City: The Role of Community’s Participation and Tourism Impacts. SAGE Open, 9(2), 1-15.

Brown, G., & Raymond, C. (2007). The relationship between place attachment and landscape values: Toward mapping place attachment. Applied geography, 27(2), 89-111.

Brunt, P., & Courtney, P. (1999). Host perceptions of sociocultural impacts. Annals of tourism Research, 26(3), 493-515.

Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 24(1), 5-12.

Cardoso, C., & Silva, M. (2018). Residents’ perceptions and attitudes towards future tourism development: A challenge for tourism planners. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes, 10(6), 688-697.

Carr, A., Ruhanen, L., & Whitford, M. (2016). Indigenous peoples and tourism: the challenges and opportunities for sustainable tourism. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 24(8-9), 1067-1079.

Curto, J. (2006). Resident perceptions of tourism in a rapidly growing mountain tourism destination. Thesis, Master of Applied Environmental Studies in Local Economic Development – Tourism Policy and Planning, University of Waterloo.

Eshliki, S. A., & Kaboudi, M. (2012). Community perception of tourism impacts and their participation in tourism planning: a case study of Ramsar, Iran. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 36(2012), 333-341.

Faulkner, B., & Tideswell, C. (1997). A framework for monitoring community impacts of tourism. Journal of sustainable tourism, 5(1), 3-28.

Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of marketing research, 18(1), 39-50.

Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2013). Multivariate data analysis: Pearson new international edition. New Jersey: Pearson Higher Ed.

Hammad, N., Ahmad, S. & Papastathopoulos, A. (2017), Residents’ perceptions of the impact of tourism in Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research, 11(4), 551-572.

Hooper, D., Coughlan, J., & Mullen, M. R. (2008). Structural equation modelling: Guidelines for determining model fit. Electronic journal of business research methods, 6(1), 53-60.

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modeling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55.

ILO. (2013). Understanding the Indigenous and Tribal People Convention, 1989 (No. 169): Handbook for ILO tripartite constituents. International Labour Office.

UNWTO. (2007). UNWTO world tourism barometer (Vol. 5). Retrieved October 18, 2020, from

Jurowski, C., & Gursoy, D. (2004). Distance effects on resident’s attitudes toward tourism. Annals of tourism research, 31(2), 296-312.

Khisa, S. K. (1998). Ethno-botanical cultural background of ethnic communities in forest resource management in Chittagong Hill Tracts. Chittagong: Bangladesh Forest Research Institute.

Khoshkam, M., Marzuki, A., & Al-Mulali, U. (2016). Socio-demographic effects on Anzali wetland tourism development. Tourism Management, 54(2016), 96-106.

Kline, R. B. (2005), Principles and Practice of Structural Equation Modeling, (2nd ed.). London: Guildford Press.

Konstantaki, M., & Wickens, E. (2010). Residents' perceptions of environmental and security issues at the 2012 London Olympic Games. Journal of Sport & Tourism, 15(4), 337-357.

Krejcie, R. V., & Morgan, D. W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational and psychological measurement, 30(3), 607-610.

Latip, N. A., Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Jaafar, M., Marzuki, A., & Umar, M. U. (2018). Indigenous residents’ perceptions towards tourism development: a case of Sabah, Malaysia. Journal of Place Management and Development, 11(4), 391–410.

Liu, J. C., & Var, T. (1986). Resident attitudes toward tourism impacts in Hawaii. Annals of tourism research, 13(2), 193-214.

Lo, M. C., Ramayah, T., & Hui, H. L. H. (2014). Rural communities’ perceptions and attitudes towards environment tourism development. Journal of Sustainable Development, 7(4), 84-94. https:// doi:10.5539/jsd.v7n4p84.

McGehee, N. G., & Andereck, K. L. (2004). Factors predicting rural residents’ support of tourism. Journal of travel research, 43(2), 131-140.

Miah, D., Chakma, S., Koike, M., & Muhammed, N. (2012). Contribution of forests to the livelihood of the Chakma community in the Chittagong Hill Tracts of Bangladesh. Journal of forest research, 17(6), 449-457.

Moon, S. G., Jeong, S. Y., & Choi, Y. (2017). Moderating effects of trust on environmentally significant behavior in Korea. Sustainability, 9(3), 415.

Muhammed, N., Oesten, G., Von Detten, R., Masum, M. F. H., & Chakma, S. (2010). Livelihood pattern and forest dependence of the major tribes in Rangamati, Bangladesh. Japan: Shinsu University International Symposium (pp. 45-58).

Nunkoo, R., & Gursoy, D. (2012). Residents’ support for tourism: An identity perspective. Annals of Tourism Research, 39(1), 243-268.

Papastathopoulos, A., Ahmad, S. Z., Al Sabri, N., & Kaminakis, K. (2019). Demographic Analysis of Residents’ Support for Tourism Development in the UAE: A Bayesian Structural Equation Modeling Multi group Approach. Journal of Travel Research, 59(6), 1119-1139. https://

Pickens, J. (2005). Attitudes and perceptions. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from https://www. links/5728b08008aef7c7e2c0bf26/Attitudes-and-Perceptions.pdf.

Prayag, G., Hosany, S., Nunkoo, R., & Alders, T. (2013). London residents' support for the 2012 Olympic Games: The mediating effect of overall attitude. Tourism Management, 36(2013), 629-640.

Rasoolimanesh, S. M., Jaafar, M., Kock, N., & Ramayah, T. (2015). A revised framework of social exchange theory to investigate the factors influencing residents’ perceptions. Tourism Management Perspectives, 16, 335–345.

Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Jaafar, M. (2016a). Community participation toward tourism development and conservation program in rural world heritage sites. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from Tourism_Development_and_Conservation_Program_in_Rural_World_Heritage_Sites.

Rasoolimanesh, S. M., & Jaafar, M. (2016b). Residents’ perception toward tourism development: A pre-development perspective. Journal of Place Management and Development, 9(1), 91-104.

Rasul, G. (2016). Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals in Chittagong Hill Tracts – Challenges and Opportunities. Retrieved October 18, 2020, from https://www. publication/312084935_Achieving_the_Sustainable_Development_Goals_in_Chittagong_Hill_Tracts_-_Challenges_and_Opportunities.

Shamsuddoha, M., Alamgir, M., & Nasir, T. (2011). Cultural tourism: Bangladesh tribal areas perspective. Revista de turism-studii si cercetari in turism, 12(12), 28-32.

Sharpley, R. (2014). Host perceptions of tourism: A review of the research. Tourism Management, 42(C), 37-49.

Stylidis, D. (2018). Place attachment, perception of place and residents’ support for tourism development. Tourism Planning & Development, 15(2), 188-210.

Stylidis, D., Biran, A., Sit, J., & Szivas, E. M. (2014). Residents’ support for tourism development: The role of residents’ place image and perceived tourism impacts. Tourism Management, 45, 260–274.

Talukder, K., Paul, T. K., & Council, R. H. D. (2013). Report on agricultural development strategy for Rangamati. Retrieved October 20, 2020, from /publication /323847218_Agro-economic_performances_of_improved_and_traditional_jhum_cultivation_ in_hill_district_of_Bangladesh.

Xu, S., Barbieri, C., Anderson, D., Leung, Y. F., & Rozier-Rich, S. (2016). Residents' perceptions of wine tourism development. Tourism Management, 55, 276-286.

Yoon, Y. (2002). Development of a structural model for tourism destination competitiveness from stakeholders' perspectives. Doctora ldissertation, Doctor, Philosophy In Hospitality and Tourism Management, Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

Yu, C.-P., Cole, S., & Chancellor, C. (2018). Resident support for tourism development in rural midwestern (USA) communities: Perceived tourism impacts and community quality of life perspective. Sustainability, 10(3), 802. https://doi:10.3390/su10030802.