Examining the Exemplary Leadership Level of Cambodian Secondary School Students in Battambang Province


  • Soksamnang Pheach Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University
  • Penvara Xupravati Faculty of Education, Chulalongkorn University


Exemplary Leadership, Secondary School Students, Battambang Province


Leadership was one of the eight mandatory competencies that the Ministry of Education, Youth, and Sport targets secondary school students to acquire after graduation. Because there was no evidence and any relevant study about students’ leadership level in Cambodia, the purpose of this study was to explore and examine the level of leadership, including gender inequality, educational level, and grade. The data were collected from 12 sample schools, choosing one school to represent one district. There were 64 out of 72 equivalent to 88.9 % students completed the five-point Likert scale questionnaire. The questionnaire was evaluated by experts through IOC. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics (i.e., mean, standard deviation) and inferential statistics (i.e., independent sample t-test and one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)). The findings had shown that students’ exemplary leadership level was slightly high (Mean = 3.669). ‘Encourage the heart dimension’ was scored the highest (Mean = 3.806), while the lowest mean value was ‘inspire a shared vision dimension’ (Mean = 3.367). There was no significant difference in exemplary leadership level of secondary school students regarding gender, educational level, and grade.



Download data is not yet available.


Bento, A., & Ribeiro, I. (2010). Sustainable Leadership of Senior Students: The Case Study of Madeira. Journal of Teacher Education for Sustainability, 12(1), 66-74.

Brauckmann, S., & Pashiardis, P. (2011). A validation study of the leadership styles of a holistic leadership theoretical framework. International Journal of Educational Management, 25(1), 11-32. https:// doi.org/10.1108/09513541111100099

Bredenberg, K. (2018). Secondary education in Cambodia: The progress of reform. Combodia: Phnom Penh.

Care, E., Chinna, U., Sar, S., & Khou, H. (2020, March 9). Cambodia’s strategic scaling of 21st century skills and assessment to improve learning outcomes. Brookings. Retrieved from https://www. brookings.edu/blog/education-plus-development/2020/03/09/cambodias-strategic-scaling-of-21st-century-skills-and-assessment-to-improve-learning-outcomes/

Chea, P. (n.d.). Education Reform in Cambodia. (Master’s thesis, University of Oxford). Rise Programme https://riseprogramme.org/sites/default/files/inline-files/ Politics_of_Change_Phalla_Chea.pdf

ChuonNaron, H. (2018). Education reform in Cambodia: Towards a knowledge-based society and shared prosperity: Sok Heng Printing House. Combodia: Phnom Penh.

Ekpoh, U., Edet, A., & Samuel, U. (2013). Youth Leadership Skills’ Empowerment for National Transformation, 5, 81-86.

Foley, A. (2005). The leadership corner: Creating a baseline for leadership education, 34(2), 2-5.

Haynes-Tross, E. (2015). The Importance of Developing Leadership Skills in Grades 6-8 Middle School Students from the Perspective of Administrators, Teachers, and Students. Education Doctoral. Paper 230. https://fisherpub.sjf.edu/education_etd/230

Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (2017). The Leadership Challenge: How to Make Extraordinary Things Happen in Organizations. Canada: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, New Jersey.

Kouzes, J. M., & Posner, B. Z. (1995). The leadership challenge: how to keep getting extraordinary things done in organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Mallery, P., & George, D. (2000). SPSS for windows step by step: A Simple Guide and Reference, 9.0 Update (2nd ed.). Routledge Member of the Taylor and Francis Group.

Nguon, S. (2014). A study of the Competency of Secondary School Directors Under the Jurisdiction of Phnom Penh Municipal Department of Education, Youth and Sport, The Kingdom of Cambodia. (Master’s thesis, Chulalongkorn University).

Sopich, S. (2022). Country’s Best Teachers, Principals and Schools Awarded. Society. Retrieved from https://cambodianess.com/article/countrys-best-teachers-principals-and-schools-awarded

Sulpakar, S., Ridwan, R., Herdian, H., Sudjarwo, S., & Hariri, H. (2022). Exemplary Leadership Style and Other Leadership Styles Associated with Exemplary Practices. International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 16, 91.